Plant and Soil

, Volume 368, Issue 1–2, pp 139–153 | Cite as

Changing crop magnesium concentrations: impact on human health

  • Andrea RosanoffEmail author
Regular Article



Decreasing mineral concentrations in high-yield grains of the Green Revolution have coincided in time with rising global cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates. Given the Magnesium (Mg) Hypothesis of CVD, it’s important to assess any changes in food crop Mg concentrations over the past 50+ years.


Using current and historical published sources, Mg concentrations in “old” and “new” wheats, fruits and vegetables were listed/calculated (dry weight basis) and applied to reports of USA’s historic Mg supply, 1900–2006. Resulting trend in USA Mg supply was compared with USA trend in CVD mortality. Human Mg intake studies, old and new, were compared with the range of reported human Mg requirements.


Acknowledging assessment difficulties, since the 1850s, wheats have declined in Mg concentration 7–29 %; USA and English vegetables’ Mg declined 15–23 %, 1930s to 1980s. The nadir of USA food Mg supply in 1968 coincides with the USA peak in CVD mortality. As humans transition from “traditional” to modern processed food diets, Mg intake declines.


Rising global CVD mortality may be linked to lower Mg intakes as world populations transition from traditional high Mg foods to those low in Mg due to declining crop Mg and processing losses.


Magnesium Human nutrition Global nutrition Mineral nutrition Nutrient deficiencies Non-communicable diseases Metabolic syndrome Cardiovascular diseases The magnesium hypothesis of cardiovascular disease Decreasing food crop magnesium concentrations 



The author wishes to acknowledge mathematician Michael Plesset for consultation and calculation of statistics in preparation of this manuscript.


  1. Abu-Saad K, Shai I, Kaufman-Shriqui V, German L, Vardi H, Fraser D (2009) Bread type intake is associated with lifestyle and diet quality transition among Bedouin Arab adults. Br J Nutr 102:1513–1522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, Fruchart JC, James WP, Loria CM, Smith SC Jr (2009) Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 120:1640–1645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angeli F, Reboldi G, Garofoli M, Ramundo E, Verdecchia P (2012) Very early initiation of statin therapy and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Acute Card Care 14:34–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymous (1987) Strategies for the prevention of coronary heart disease: a policy statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society. Eur Heart J 8:77–88Google Scholar
  5. Balkau B, Charles MA (1999) Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Diabet Med 16:442–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Basu KP, Malakar MC (1940) Magnesium metabolism in man. Indian J Med Res 29:333Google Scholar
  7. Bates B, Lennox A, Swan GE (2010) National diet and nutrition survey. Food Standards Agency; Department of Health, UK. Table 5.27. Accessed 25 March 2012
  8. Beeson KC (1941) The mineral composition of crops with particular reference to the soils in which they were grown. A review and compilation. pp 164. United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publications No. 369, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett WL, Odelola OA, Wilson LM, Bolen S, Selvaraj S, Robinson KA, Bass EB, Puhan MA (2012) Evaluation of guideline recommendations on oral medications for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 156:27–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP 3rd, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA (1998) Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med 338:1650–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Broadley MR, White PJ (2010) Eats roots and leaves. Can edible horticultural crops address dietary calcium, magnesium and potassium deficiencies? Proc Nutr Soc 69:601–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Broadley MR, Hammond JP, King GJ, Astley D, Bowen HC, Meacham MC, Mead A, Pink DA, Teakle GR, Hayden RM, Spracklen WP, White PJ (2008) Shoot calcium and magnesium concentrations differ between subtaxa, are highly heritable, and associate with potentially pleiotropic loci in Brassica oleracea. Plant Physiol 146:1707–1720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Canto JG, Kiefe CI, Rogers WJ, Peterson ED, Frederick PD, French WJ, Gibson CM, Pollack CV Jr, Ornato JP, Zalenski RJ, Penney J, Tiefenbrunn AJ, Greenland P (2011) Number of coronary heart disease risk factors and mortality in patients with first myocardial infarction. JAMA 306:2120–2127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chu HI, Liu SH, Hsu HC, Choa HC, Cheu SH (1941) Calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen, and magnesium metabolism in normal young Chinese adults. Chin Med J 59:1Google Scholar
  15. Cullumbine H, Basnayake V, Lemottee J, Wickramanayake TW (1950) Mineral metabolism on rice diets. Br J Nutr 4:101–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lin JK, Singh GM, Paciorek CJ, Cowan MJ, Farzadfar F, Stevens GA, Lim SS, Riley LM, Ezzati M (2011) National, regional, and global trends in systolic blood pressure since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 786 country-years and 5.4 million participants. Lancet 377:568–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davidson CS (1975) Editorial: you and i and the food-population crisis. Am J Clin Nutr 28:669–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Davis DR (2009) Declining fruit and vegetable nutrient composition: what is the evidence? HortSci 44:15–19Google Scholar
  19. DRI (1997) Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, pp 190–249Google Scholar
  20. Eby GA, Eby KL (2006) Raid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Med Hypotheses 67:362–370Google Scholar
  21. Egan BM, Zhao Y, Axon RN (2010) US trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, 1988–2008. JAMA 303:2043–2050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Einhorn D, Reaven GM, Cobin RH, Ford E, Ganda OP, Handelsman Y, Hellman R, Jellinger PS, Kendall D, Krauss RM, Neufeld ND, Petak SM, Rodbard HW, Seibel JA, Smith DA, Wilson PW (2003) American College of Endocrinology position statement on the insulin resistance syndrome. Endocr Pract 9:237–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. El-kholy TA, Qahwaji D, Antar SA (2012) A study of nutritional status of Saudi pregnant women comparing with non Saudi in King Abdul Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah. J Am Sci 8:231–240Google Scholar
  24. Fan M-S, Zhao F-J, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Poulton PR, Dunham SJ, McGrath SP (2008) Evidence of decreasing mineral density in wheat grain over the last 160 years. J Trace Elem Med Biol 22:315–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. FAO (1996) Agriculture and food security. In: Global Perspectives Studies Unit and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (eds) World food summit; food for all. FAO Corporate Document Repository, Rome, Italy. Accessed 27 June 2012
  26. FAO (2012a) Hunger statistics: FAO hunger portal. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Accessed 3 April 2012
  27. FAO (2012b) FAOSTAT, food balance sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Accessed 11 April 2012
  28. Farnham MW, Grusak MA, Wang M (2000) Calcium and magnesium concentration of inbred and hybrid broccoli heads. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 125:344–349Google Scholar
  29. Farzadfar F, Finucane MM, Danaei G, Pelizzari PM, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Singh GM, Lin JK, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Ezzati M (2011) National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3.0 million participants. Lancet 377:578–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ficco DBM, Riefolo C, Nicastro G, De Simone V, Di Gesu AM, Beleggia R, Platani C, Cattivelli L, DeVita P (2009) Phytate and mineral elements concentration in a collection of Italian durum wheat cultivars. Field Crops Res 111:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, Danaei G, Lin JK, Paciorek CJ, Singh GM, Gutierrez HR, Lu Y, Bahalim AN, Farzadfar F, Riley LM, Ezzati M (2011) National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet 377:557–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Food Standards Agency (2002) McCance and Widdowson's the composition of foods sixth summary edition. Royal Society of Chemistry, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  33. Ford ES, Mokdad AH (2003) Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults. J Nutr 133:2879–2882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ford ES, Ajani UA, Croft JB, Critchley JA, Labarthe DR, Kottke TE, Giles WH, Capewell S (2007) Explaining the decrease in U.S. deaths from coronary disease, 1980–2000. N Engl J Med 356:2388–2398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fraser D, Abu-Saad K, Abu-Shareb H (2001) The relative importance of traditional and “modern” foods for Israeli Negev Bedouins. A population in transition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 11:66–69Google Scholar
  36. Fraser D, Weitzman S, Blondheim S, Shany S, Abou-Rbiah Y (1990) The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among male Bedouins: a population in transition. Eur J Epidemiol 6:273–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garipagaoglu M, Oner N, Vatansever U, Inan M, Kucukugurluoglu Y, Turan C (2008) Dietary intakes of adolescents living in Edirne, Turkey. J Am Coll Nutr 27:394–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gault A, O'Dea K, Rowley KG, McLeay T, Traianedes K (1996) Abnormal glucose tolerance and other coronary heart disease risk factors in an isolated aboriginal community in central Australia. Diabetes Care 19:1269–1273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gerrior S, Bente L, Hiza H (2004) Nutrient content of the U.S. food supply, 1909–2000. (Home Economics Research Report No. 56). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and PromotionGoogle Scholar
  40. Greaves JE, Hirst CT (1929) The mineral content of grain. J Nutr 1:293–298Google Scholar
  41. Greenland P, Knoll MD, Stamler J, Neaton JD, Dyer AR, Garside DB, Wilson PW (2003) Major risk factors as antecedents of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease events. JAMA 290:891–897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Health-Canada (2004) Nutrient intakes from food provincial, regional and national summary data tables, volume 1 p 197. Data source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004) – Share FileGoogle Scholar
  43. Health-Canada (2012) Canadian Nutrient File (CNF). Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Accessed 17 November 2011
  44. Hiza HAB, Bente L (2011) Nutrient content of the U.S. food supply: developments between 2000 and 2006 (Homne Economics Research Report No. 59. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, U.S. Department of AgricultureGoogle Scholar
  45. Holland B, Unwin ID, Buss DH (1988) Cereals and Cereal Products, Third Supplement to McCance and Widdowson's Composition of Foods, 4th Edn. Royal Society of Chemistry, Nottingham, UKGoogle Scholar
  46. Hunt CD, Johnson LK (2006) Magnesium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of metabolic magnesium balance data. Am J Clin Nutr 84:843–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. IDF (2006) The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, Belgium. Accessed 28 April 2012
  48. Ikeda N, Gakidou E, Hasegawa T, Murray CJ (2008) Understanding the decline of mean systolic blood pressure in Japan: an analysis of pooled data from the National Nutrition Survey, 1986–2002. Bull World Health Organ 86:978–988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jung KI, Ock SM, Chung JH, Song CH (2010) Associations of serum Ca and Mg levels with mental health in adult women without psychiatric disorders. Biol Trace Elem Res 133:153–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaiser (2011) Snapshots: health care spending in the United States & selected OECD countries. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Accessed 16 April 2012
  51. Kapil U, Verma D, Goel M, Saxena N, Gnanasekaran H, Goindi G, Nayar D (1998) Dietary intake of trace elements and minerals among adults in underprivileged communities of rural Rajasthan, India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 7:29–32Google Scholar
  52. Khan NA, McAlister FA, Campbell NR, Feldman RD, Rabkin S, Mahon J, Lewanczuk R, Zarnke KB, Hemmelgarn B, Lebel M, Levine M, Herbert C (2004) The 2004 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension: part II—therapy. Can J Cardiol 20:41–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Klevay LM (1975) Coronary heart disease: the zinc/copper hypothesis. Am J Clin Nutr 28:764–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lawes JG, Gilbert JH (1884) On the composition of the ash of wheat-grain, and wheat-straw, grown at Rothamsted, in different seasons, and by different manures. J Chem Soc XLV:1–105Google Scholar
  55. Liu L (2007) Cardiovascular diseases in China. Biochem Cell Biol 85:157–163Google Scholar
  56. Martin SS, Blumenthal RS, Miller M (2012) LDL cholesterol: the lower the better. Med Clin N Am 96:13–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mayer A (1997) Historical changes in the mineral content of fruits and vegetables. Br Food J 99:207–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McCance RA, Widdowson EM, Moran T, Pringle WJS, Macrae TF (1945) The chemical composition of wheat and rye and of flours derived therefrom. Biochem J 39:213Google Scholar
  59. Medical Research Council (1946) Chemical composition of foods, McCance and Widdowson, 2nd edn. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, p 156Google Scholar
  60. Minder CM, Blaha MJ, Horne A, Michos ED, Kaul S, Blumenthal RS (2012) Evidence-based use of statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 125:440–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moshfegh A, Goldman JD, Cleveland LE (2005) What we eat in America, NHANES 2001–2002: usual nutrient intakes from food compared to dietary reference intakes. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Accessed 23 January 2012
  62. Murphy KM, Reeves PG, Jones SS (2008) Relationship between yield and mineral nutrient concentrations in historical and modern spring wheat cultivars. Euphytica 163:381–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. NCEP (2002) Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 106:3143–3421Google Scholar
  64. NHLBI (2011a) What are coronary heart disease risk factors? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Washington, D.C. Accessed 27 June 2012
  65. NHLBI (2011b) How to prevent and control coronary heart disease risk factors. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Washington, D.C. Accessed 28 June 2012
  66. NIH (2012) Morbidity & mortality: 2012 chart book on cardiovascular, lung, and blood diseases. National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Accessed 9 April 2012
  67. Oury F-X, Leenhardt F, Remesy C, Chanliaud E, Duperrier B, Balfourier F, Charmet G (2006) Genetic variability and stability of grain magnesium, zinc and iron concentrations in bread wheat. Eur J Agron 25:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Papadopol F, Nechifor M (2011) Magnesium in neuroses and neuroticism. In: Vnik R, Nechifor M (eds) Magnesium in the central nervous system. University of Adelaide Press, Adalaide, pp 269–281Google Scholar
  69. Parikh RM, Mohan V (2012) Changing definitions of metabolic syndrome. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 16:7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Paul AA, Southgate DAT (1978) McCance and Widdowson's the composition of foods, 4th edn. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, p 418Google Scholar
  71. Popkin BM (1994) The nutrition transition in low-income countries: an emerging crisis. Nutr Rev 52:285–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Popkin BM (2001) The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. J Nutr 131:871S–873SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Qaseem A, Humphrey LL, Sweet DE, Starkey M, Shekelle P (2012) Oral pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 156:218–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ramsay L, Williams B, Johnston G, MacGregor G, Poston L, Potter J, Poulter N, Russell G (1999) Guidelines for management of hypertension: report of the third working party of the British Hypertension Society. J Hum Hypertens 13:569–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reaven GM (1988) Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 37:1595–1607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reinhart KM, Woods JA (2012) Strategies to preserve the use of statins in patients with previous muscular adverse effects. Am J Health Syst Pharm 69:291–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Resnick LM (1992a) Cellular calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension and related metabolic disorders. Am J Med 93:11S–20SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Resnick LM (1992b) Cellular ions in hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes: a unifying theme. J Am Soc Nephrol 3:S78–S85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Resnick LM (1993) Ionic basis of hypertension, insulin resistance, vascular disease, and related disorders. The mechanism of "syndrome X". Am J Hypertens 6:123S–134SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. RNI (1991) Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. Rep Health Soc Subj (Lond) 41:1–210Google Scholar
  81. Rosanoff A (2012) The Mg hypothesis of cardiovascular disease: a bibliography. Center for Magnesium Education & Research. Accessed 24 April 2012
  82. Rosanoff A, Weaver CM, Rude RK (2012) Suboptimal magnesium status in the United States: are the health consequences underestimated? Nutr Rev 70:153–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rowley KG, Best JD, McDermott R, Green EA, Piers LS, O'Dea K (1997) Insulin resistance syndrome in Australian aboriginal people. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 24:776–781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. School of Public and Health (2011) Age-standardized diabetes prevalence (%), 1980–2008; global map of risk factors. Imperial College, London. Accessed 27 March 2012
  85. Seelig MS (1964) The requirement of magnesium by the normal adult. Summary and analysis of published data. Am J Clin Nutr 14:242–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Seelig MS (1980) Magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of disease, early roots of cardiovascular, skeletal, and renal abnormalities. Plenum Medical Book Co, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Seelig MS, Rosanoff A (2003) The magnesium factor. Avery Penguin Group, New York, p 376Google Scholar
  88. Tilman D, Cassman KG, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S (2002) Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. USDA (2011) National nutrient database for standard reference, release 24 U.S Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Accessed Often in 2011–2012
  90. Watt BK, Merrill AL, Pecot RK, Adams CF, Orr ML, Miller DF (1963) Composition of foods: raw, processed, prepared agriculture handbook no 8,, Ed A R S U.S. Department of Agriculture. Consumer and food Economics InstituteGoogle Scholar
  91. Welch RM (2002) The impact of mineral nutrients in food crops on global human health. Plant Soil 247:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Welch RM, Graham RD (1999) A new paradigm for world agriculture: meeting human needs—productive, sustainable, nutritious. Field Crops Res 60:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Welch AA, Fransen H, Jenab M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Tumino R, Agnoli C, Ericson U, Johansson I, Ferrari P, Engeset D, Lund E, Lentjes M, Key T, Touvier M, Niravong M, Larranaga N, Rodriguez L, Ocke MC, Peeters PH, Tjonneland A, Bjerregaard L, Vasilopoulou E, Dilis V, Linseisen J, Nothlings U, Riboli E, Slimani N, Bingham S (2009) Variation in intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and potassium in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Eur J Clin Nutr 63(Suppl 4):S101–S121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wenlock RW (1982) The nutrient content of UK wheat flours between 1957 and 1980. J Sci Food Agric 33:1310–1318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. White PJ, Broadley MR (2005) Historical variation in the mineral composition of edible horticultural products. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 80:660–667Google Scholar
  96. White PJ, Broadley MR (2009) Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets—iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine. New Phytol 182Google Scholar
  97. White PJ, Bradshaw JE, Vinlay M, Dale B, Ransay G, Hammond J, Broadley MR (2009) Relationships between yield and mineral concentrations in potato tubers. HortScience 44:6–11Google Scholar
  98. WHO (1999) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications: report of a WHO Consultation. part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. World Health Organization, Geneva. Accessed 28 April 2012
  99. WHO (2008a) World Health Statistics 2008. In: Boerma T, Abou-Zahr C, Kinfu Y (eds). World Health Organization, Geneva. Accessed 12 March 2012
  100. WHO (2008b) Preventing NCDs: the role of diet and physical activity. World Health Organization, consultation on noncummunicable diseases, WHO AFrican Region Ministerial. Accessed 28 June 2012
  101. WHO (2011a) Fact sheet 311. World Health Organization, Geneva. Access dates: 12 April 2012; 12 October 2011
  102. WHO (2011b) Chapter 1: burden: mortality, morbidity and risk factors. In: Alwan A (ed) Global status report on non-communicable diseases 2010. pp 9–31. World Health Organization, Geneva. . Accessed 11 April 2012
  103. Zhai F, Wang H, Du S, He Y, Wang Z, Ge K, Popkin BM (2007) Lifespan nutrition and changing socio-economic conditions in China. Asia P J Clin Nutr 16(Suppl 1):374–382Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Magnesium Education & Research, LLCPahoaUSA

Personalised recommendations