Plant and Soil

, Volume 361, Issue 1–2, pp 119–130 | Cite as

Biofortification of wheat with zinc through zinc fertilization in seven countries

  • C. Q. Zou
  • Y. Q. Zhang
  • A. Rashid
  • H. Ram
  • E. Savasli
  • R. Z. Arisoy
  • I. Ortiz-Monasterio
  • S. Simunji
  • Z. H. Wang
  • V. Sohu
  • M. Hassan
  • Y. Kaya
  • O. Onder
  • O. Lungu
  • M. Yaqub Mujahid
  • A. K. Joshi
  • Y. Zelenskiy
  • F. S. Zhang
  • I. Cakmak
Regular Article

Abstract

Aim

Zinc (Zn) fertilization is an effective agronomic tool for Zn biofortification of wheat for overcoming human Zn deficiency. But it still needs to be evaluated across locations with different management practices and wheat cultivars, since grain Zn concentrations may be significantly affected by locations, cultivars and management.

Materials

Field experiments were conducted over 3 years with the following four Zn treatments: nil Zn, soil Zn application, foliar Zn application and soil + foliar Zn application to explore the impact of Zn fertilization in Zn biofortification of wheat. The experiments were conducted at a total of 23 experimental site-years in China, India, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey and Zambia.

Results

The results showed that foliar Zn application alone or in combination with soil application, significantly increased grain Zn concentrations from 27 mg kg−1 at nil Zn to 48 and 49 mg kg−1 across all of 23 site-years, resulting in increases in grain Zn by 84 % and 90 %, respectively. Overall, soil Zn deficiency was not a growth limiting factor on the experimental sites. A significant grain yield increase in response to soil Zn fertilization was found only in Pakistan. When all locations and cropping years are combined, soil Zn fertilization resulted in about 5 % increase in grain yield. Foliar Zn application did not cause any adverse effect on grain yield, even slightly improved the yield. Across the 23 site-years, soil Zn application had a small effect on Zn concentration of leaves collected before foliar Zn application, and increased grain Zn concentration only by 12 %. The correlation between grain yield and the effectiveness of foliar Zn application on grain Zn was condition dependent, and was positive and significant at certain conditions.

Conclusion

Foliar Zn application resulted in successful biofortification of wheat grain with Zn without causing yield loss. This effect of Zn fertilization occurred irrespective of the soil and environmental conditions, management practices applied and cultivars used in 23 site-years. Foliar Zn fertilizer approach can be locally adopted for increasing dietary Zn intake and fighting human Zn deficiency in rural areas.

Keywords

Biofortification Foliar zinc application Wheat Zinc deficiency 

References

  1. Alloway BJ (2004) Zinc in soils and crop nutrition. IZA Publications. International Zinc Association, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  2. Alloway BJ (2008) Zinc in soils and crop nutrition. 2nd ed. International Zinc Association, Brussels; International Fertilizer Industry Association, ParisGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagci SA, Ekiz H, Yilmaz A, Cakmak I (2007) Effects of zinc deficiency and drought on grain yield of field-grown wheat cultivars in Central Anatolia. J Agron Crop Sci 193:198–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouis H (1996) Enrichment of food staples through plant breeding: a new strategy for fighting micronutrient malnutrition. Nutr Rev 54:131–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouis HE, Welch RM (2010) Biofortification-A sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition in the global south. Crop Sci 50:20–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouis HE, Hotz C, McClafferty B, Meenakshi JV, Pfeiffer WH (2011) Biofortification: a new tool to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Food Nutr Bull 32:S31–S40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cakmak I (2000) Role of zinc in protecting plant cells from reactive oxygen species. New Phytol 146:185–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cakmak I (2008) Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant Soil 302:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cakmak I, Pfeiffer WH, McClafferty B (2010a) Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc and iron. Cereal Chem 87:10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cakmak I, Kalayci M, Kaya Y, Torun AA, Aydin N, Wang Y, Arisoy Z, Erdem H, Yazici A, Gokmen O, Ozturk L, Horst WJ (2010b) Biofortification and localization of zinc in wheat grain. J Agric Food Chem 58:9092–9102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cakmak I, Yilmaz A, Ekiz H, Torun B, Erenoglu B, Braun HJ (1996) Zinc deficiency as a critical nutritional problem in wheat production in Central Anatolia. Plant Soil 180:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ekiz H, Bagci SA, Kiral AS, Eker S, Gultekin I, Alkan A, Cakmak I (1998) Effects of zinc fertilization and irrigation on grain yield and zinc concentration of various cereals grown in zinc-deficient calcareous soil. J Plant Nutr 21:2245–2256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fan M, Zhao F, Fairweathertait S, Poulton P, Dunham S, McGrath S (2008) Evidence of decreasing mineral density in wheat grain over the last 160 years. J Trace Elem Med Biol 22:315–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Database FAO (2010) The statistic division. United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. Garvin DF, Welch RM, Finley JW (2006) Historical shifts in the seed mineral micronutrient concentration of US hard red winter wheat germplasm. J Sci Food Agric 86:2213–2220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gibson RS (2006) Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries. Proc Nutr Soc 65:51–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gomez-Becerra HF, Abugalieva A, Morgounov A, Abdullayev K, Bekenova L, Yessimbekova M, Sereda G, Shpigun S, Tsygankov V, Zelenskiy Y, Pena RJ, Cakmak I (2010) Phenotypic correlations, G x E interactions and broad sense heritability analysis of grain and flour quality characteristics in high latitude spring bread wheats from Kazakhstan and Siberia. Euphytica 171:23–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Graham RD, Ascher JS, Hynes SC (1992) Selection of zinc-efficient cereal genotypes for soils of low zinc status. Plant Soil 146:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Graham RD, Senadhira D, Beebe S, Iglesias C, Monasterio I (1999) Breeding for micronutrient density in edible portions of staple food crops: conventional approaches. Field Crop Res 60:57–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Graham RD, Welch RM, Saunders DA, Ortiz-Monasterio I, Bouis HE, Bonierbale M, de Haan S, Burgos G, Thiele G, Liria R, Meisner CA, Beebe SE, Potts MJ, Kadian M, Hobbs PR, Gupta PK, Twomlow S (2007) Nutritious subsistence food systems. Adv Agron 92:1–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Haslett BS, Reid RJ, Rengel Z (2001) Zinc mobility in wheat: uptake and distribution of zinc applied to leaves or roots. Ann Bot 87:379–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hotz C, Brown KH (2004) Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control. Food Nutr Bull 25:S91–S204Google Scholar
  23. Karami M, Afyuni M, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Papritz A, Schulin R (2009) Grain zinc, iron and copper concentrations of wheat grown in central Iran and their relationships with soil and climate variables. J Agric Food Chem 57:10876–10882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Karim MR, Zhang YQ, Zhao RR, Chen XP, Zhang FS, Zou CQ (2012) Alleviation of drought stress in winter wheat by late foliar application of zinc, boron, and manganese. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 175:142–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kutman UB, Yildiz B, Ozturk L, Cakmak I (2010) Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc through soil and foliar applications of nitrogen. Cereal Chem 87:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ma GS, Jin Y, Li YP, Zhai FY, Kok F, Jacobsen E, Yang XG (2008) Iron and zinc deficiencies in China: what is a feasible and cost-effective strategy? Public Health Nutr 11:632–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McDonald GK, Genc Y, Graham RD (2008) A simple method to evaluate genetic variation in Zn grain concentration by correcting for differences in grain yield. Plant Soil 306:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morgounov A, Gomez-Becerra HF, Abugalieva A, Dzhunusova M, Yessimbekova M, Muminjanov H, Zelenskiy Y, Ozturk L, Cakmak I (2007) Iron and zinc grain density in common wheat grown in Central Asia. Euphytica 155:193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oury FX, Leenhardt F, Rémésy C, Chanliaud E, Duperrier B, Balfourier F, Charmet G (2006) Genetic variability and stability of grain magnesium, zinc and iron concentrations in bread wheat. Eur J Agron 25:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pearson JN, Rengel Z (1994) Distribution and remobilization of Zn and Mn during grain development in wheat. J Exp Bot 281:1829–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shewry PR (2009) Wheat. J Exp Bot 60:1537–1553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stein AJ (2010) Global impacts of human mineral malnutrition. Plant Soil 335:133–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Waters BM, Grusak MA (2008) Whole-plant mineral partitioning throughout the life cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Columbia, Landsberg erecta, Cape Verde Islands, and the mutant line ysl1ysl3. New Phytol 177:389–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Waters BM, Sankaran RP (2011) Moving micronutrients from the soil to the seeds: genes and physiological processes from a bio-fortification perspective. Plant Sci 180:562–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Welch RM (1999) Importance of seed mineral nutrient reserves in crop growth and development. In: Rengel Z (ed) Mineral nutrition of crops: fundamental mechanisms and implications. Food Products Press, New York, pp 205–226Google Scholar
  36. Welch RM (2008) Linkages between trace elements in food crops and human health. In: Alloway BJ (ed) Micronutrient deficiencies in global crop production. Springer, Netherlands, pp 287–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Welch RM, Graham RD (2004) Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective. J Exp Bot 55:353–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. White PJ, Broadley MR (2005) Biofortifying crops with essential mineral elements. Trends Plant Sci 10:586–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yilmaz A, Ekiz H, Torun B, Gultekin I, Karanlik S, Bagci SA, Cakmak I (1997) Effect of different zinc application methods on grain yield and zinc concentration in wheat cultivars grown on zinc-deficient calcareous soils. J Plant Nutr 20:461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yilmaz A, Ekiz H, Gultekin I, Torun B, Barut H, Karanlik S, Cakmak I (1998) Effect of seed zinc content on grain yield and zinc concentration of wheat grown in zinc-deficient calcareous soils. J Plant Nutr 21:2257–2264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang YQ, Shi RL, Karim MR, Zhang FS, Zou CQ (2010) Iron and zinc concentrations in grain and flour of winter wheat as affected by foliar application. J Agric Food Chem 58:12268–12274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang YQ, Sun YX, Ye YL, Karim MR, Xue YF, Yan P, Meng QF, Cui ZL, Cakmak I, Zhang FS, Zou CQ (2012) Zinc biofortification of wheat through fertilizer applications in different locations of China. Field Crop Res 125:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhao FJ, McGrath SP (2009) Biofortification and phytoremediation. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:373–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Q. Zou
    • 1
  • Y. Q. Zhang
    • 1
  • A. Rashid
    • 2
  • H. Ram
    • 3
  • E. Savasli
    • 4
  • R. Z. Arisoy
    • 5
  • I. Ortiz-Monasterio
    • 6
  • S. Simunji
    • 7
  • Z. H. Wang
    • 8
  • V. Sohu
    • 3
  • M. Hassan
    • 9
  • Y. Kaya
    • 5
  • O. Onder
    • 4
  • O. Lungu
    • 10
  • M. Yaqub Mujahid
    • 11
  • A. K. Joshi
    • 12
    • 13
  • Y. Zelenskiy
    • 14
  • F. S. Zhang
    • 1
  • I. Cakmak
    • 15
  1. 1.Department of Plant Nutrition, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interaction, MOE; Center for Resources, Environment and Food SecurityChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Pakistan Academy of SciencesIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Punjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  4. 4.Transitional Zone Agricultural Research InstituteEskisehirTurkey
  5. 5.BD International Agricultural research InstituteKonyaTurkey
  6. 6.CIMMYT InternationalHoustonUSA
  7. 7.Golden Valley Agricultural Research TrustLusakaZambia
  8. 8.College of Resources and EnvironmentNorthwest Agricultural and Forestry UniversityYanglingPeople’s Republic of China
  9. 9.Plant Breeding and Genetics DivisionNuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB)FaisalabadPakistan
  10. 10.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of ZambiaLusakaZambia
  11. 11.National Agricultural Research CentreIslamabadPakistan
  12. 12.CIMMYTKathmanduNepal
  13. 13.Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  14. 14.CIMMYTAstanaKazakhstan
  15. 15.Faculty of Engineering and Natural SciencesSabanci UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations