Plant and Soil

, Volume 324, Issue 1–2, pp 1–30 | Cite as

Desirable plant root traits for protecting natural and engineered slopes against landslides

  • Alexia Stokes
  • Claire Atger
  • Anthony Glyn Bengough
  • Thierry Fourcaud
  • Roy C. Sidle
Marschner Review

Abstract

Slope stability models traditionally use simple indicators of root system structure and strength when vegetation is included as a factor. However, additional root system traits should be considered when managing vegetated slopes to avoid shallow substrate mass movement. Traits including root distribution, length, orientation and diameter are recognized as influencing soil fixation, but do not consider the spatial and temporal dimensions of roots within a system. Thick roots act like soil nails on slopes and the spatial position of these thick roots determines the arrangement of the associated thin roots. Thin roots act in tension during failure on slopes and if they traverse the potential shear zone, provide a major contribution in protecting against landslides. We discuss how root traits change depending on ontogeny and climate, how traits are affected by the local soil environment and the types of plastic responses expressed by the plant. How a landslide engineer can use this information when considering slope stability and management strategies is discussed, along with perspectives for future research. This review encompasses many ideas, data and concepts presented at the Second International Conference ‘Ground Bio- and Eco-engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability—ICGBE2’ held at Beijing, China, 14–18 July 2008. Several papers from this conference are published in this edition of Plant and Soil.

Keywords

Soil cohesion Root architecture Slope stability Soil mass wasting Suction 

References

  1. Abe K, Ziemer RR (1991a) Effect of tree roots on a shear zone: modeling reinforced shear stress. Can J For Res 21:1012–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abe K, Ziemer RR (1991b) Effect of tree roots on shallow-seated landslides. In: Proc. IUFRO technical session on geomorphic hazards in managed forests; 5–11 August 1990; Montreal, Canada. Rice R M., technical coordinator. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-130, Berkeley, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S.D.A. pp 11–20Google Scholar
  3. Amin T, Beissalah Y, Hadzein E, Neville B (1987) Variations de la régénération du pivot de jeunes plants de chênes verts (Quercus ilex) après divers traumatismes. Ecol Medit 13:61–76Google Scholar
  4. Anderson CJ, Coutts MP, Ritchie RM, Campbell DJ (1989) Root extraction force measurements for Sitka spruce. Forestry 62:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atger C, Edelin C (1994a) Premières données sur l’architecture comparée des systèmes racinaires et caulinaires. Can J Bot 72:963–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atger C, Edelin C (1994b) Stratégies d’occupation du milieu souterrain par les systèmes racinaires des arbres. Rev Ecol (Terre Vie) 49:343–356Google Scholar
  7. Ba M (2008) Etude des propriétés biomécaniques et de la capacité de vie symbiotique des racines d’arbres adultes d’Acacia senegal Cand et de Prosopis juliflora Willd. PhD Thesis, Université Bordeaux I, FranceGoogle Scholar
  8. Barthelemy D, Caraglio Y (2007) Plant architecture: a dynamic, multilevel and comprehensive approach to plant form, structure and ontogeny. Ann Bot 99:375–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bathurst JC, Bovoloa CI, Cisnerosb F (2009) Modelling the effect of forest cover on shallow landslides at the river basin scale. Ecol Eng (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.05.001
  10. Bauerle TL, Smart DR, Bauerle WL, Stockert C, Eissenstat DM (2008) Root foraging in response to heterogeneous soil moisture in two grapevines that differ in potential growth rate. New Phytol 179:857–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beismann H, Schweingruber F, Speck T, Körner C (2002) Mechanical properties of spruce and beech wood grown in elevated CO2. Trees: Struct Func 16:511–518Google Scholar
  12. Bell A (1991) Plant form. An illustrated guide to flowering plant morphology. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Bengough AG, Bransby MF, Hans J, McKenna SJ, Roberts TJ, Valentine TA (2006) Root responses to soil physical conditions; growth dynamics from field to cell. J Exp Bot 57:437–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bingham IJ, Bengough AG (2003) Morphological plasticity of wheat and barley roots in response to spatial variation in soil strength. Plant Soil 250:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bischetti GB, Chiaradia EA, Simonato T, Speziali B, Vitali B, Vullo P, Zocco A (2005) Root strength and root area of forest species in Lombardy. Plant Soil 278:11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bischetti GB, Chiaradia EA, Epis T, Morlotti E (2009a) Root cohesion of forest species in the Italian Alps. Plant Soil (in press). doi:10.1007/s11104-009-9941-0
  17. Bischetti GB, Chiaradia EA, D’Agostino V, Simonato T (2009b) Quantifying the effect of brush layering on slope stability. Ecol Eng (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.03.019
  18. Block RMA, Rees KCJ, Knight JD (2006) A review of fine root dynamics in Populus plantations. Agrofor Syst 67:73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bond WJ, Midgeley JJ (2001) Ecology of sprouting in woody plants: the persistence niche. Trends Ecol Evol 16:45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bradshaw AD (2006) Unravelling phenotypic plasticity—why should we bother? New Phytol 170:644–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bremner PM, Preston GK, Destgroth CF (1986) A field comparison of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in a long drying cycle.1. Water extraction. Aust J Agric Res 37:483–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brisson J, Reynolds JF (1994) The effect of neighbors on root distribution in a creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) population. Ecology 75:1693–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burylo M, Rey F, Roumet C, Buisson E, Dutoit T (2009) Linking plant morphological traits to uprooting resistance in eroded marly lands (Southern Alps, France). Plant Soil (in press). doi:10.1007/s11104-009-9920-5
  24. Cammeraat LH, van Beek LPH, Kooijman AM (2005) Vegetation succession and its consequences for slope stability in SE Spain. Plant Soil 278:135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Champagnat P, Baba J, Delaunay M (1974) Corrélations entre le pivot et ses ramifications dans le système racinaire de jeunes chênes cultivés sous brouillard nutritif. Revue Cytologie Biol Végétales 37:407–418Google Scholar
  26. Charles Dominique T, Mangenet T, Rey H, Jourdan C, Edelin C (2009) Architectural analysis of root system of sexually vs. vegetatively propagated yam (Dioscorea rotunda Poir.), a tuber monocot. Plant Soil 317:61–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Charrier A (1969) Contribution à l’étude de la morphogenèse et de la multiplication vegetative du cacaoyer (Theobroma cacao L). Café Cacao Thé XIII(2):97–115Google Scholar
  28. Chiatante D, Scippa SG, Di Iorio A, Sarnataro M (2003) The influence of steep slopes on root system development. J Plant Growth Regul 21:247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clark LJ, Price AH, Steele KA, Whalley WR (2008) Evidence from near-isogenic lines that root penetration increases with root diameter and bending stiffness in rice. Funct Plant Biol 35:1163–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Comas LH, Eissenstat DM (2009) Patterns in root trait variation among 25 co-existing North American forest species. New Phytol 182:919–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Coppin NJ, Richards IJ (1990) Use of vegetation in civil engineering. CIRIA, Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Coutts MP (1982) Growth of Sitka spruce seedlings with roots divided between soils of unequal matric potential. New Phytol 92:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Craine JM, Lee WG (2003) Covariation in leaf and root traits for native and non-native grasses along an altitudinal gradient in New Zealand. Oecologia 134:471–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cruz RV, Harasawa H, Lal M, Wu S, Anokhin Y, Punsalmaa B, Honda Y, Jafari M, Li C, Huu Ninh N (2007) Asia. In: Parry ML et al (eds) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 469–506Google Scholar
  35. Cui M, Caldwell MM (1996) Facilitation of plant phosphate acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizas from enriched soil patches. I. Roots and hyphae exploiting the same soil volume. New Phytol 133:453–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Danjon F, Fourcaud T, Bert D (2005) Root architecture and wind-firmness of mature Pinus pinaster. New Phytol 168:387–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Danjon F, Barker DH, Drexhage M, Stokes A (2008) Using 3D plant root architecture in models of shallow-slope stability. Ann Bot 101:1281–1293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. da Silva AP, Kay BD, Perfect E (1994) Characterization of the least limiting water range of soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:1775–1781Google Scholar
  39. De Baets S, Poesen J, Reubens B, Wemans K, De Baerdemaeker J, Muys B (2008) Root tensile strength and root distribution of typical Mediterranean plant species and their contribution to soil shear strength. Plant Soil 305:207–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Deeks LK, Bengough AG, Stutter MI, Young IM, Zhang XX (2008) Characterisation of flow paths and saturated conductivity in a soil block in relation to chloride breakthrough. J Hydrol 348:431–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dhakal AS, Sidle RC (2003) Long-term modeling of landslides for different forest management practices. Earth Surf Proc Land 28:853–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dhakal AS, Sidle RC (2004a) Pore water pressure assessment in a forest watershed: simulations and distributed field measurements related to forest practices. Water Resour Res 40:W02405. doi:1029/2003WR002017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dhakal AS, Sidle RC (2004b) Distributed simulations of landslides for different rainfall conditions. Hydrol Proc 18:757–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Di Iorio A, Lasserre B, Petrozzi L, Scippa GS, Chiatante D (2008) Adaptive longitudinal growth of first-order lateral roots of a woody species (Spartium junceum) to slope and different soil conditions—upward growth of surface roots. Env Exp Bot 63:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Docker BB, Hubble TCT (2008) Quantifying root-reinforcement of river bank soils by four Australian tree species. Geomorphology 100:401–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Drew MC (1975) Comparison of the effects of a localized supply of phosphate, nitrate, ammonium and potassium on the growth of the seminal root system, and the shoot, in barley. New Phytol 75:479–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Drew MC, Saker LR, Ashley TW (1973) Nutrient supply and the growth of the seminal root system in barley I: the effect of nitrate concentration on the growth of root axes and laterals J. Exp Bot 24:1189–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Drouet JL, Pages L (2007) GRAAL-CN: a model of GRowth, Architecture and ALlocation of Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics within whole plants formalised at the organ level. Ecol Model 206:231–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dupuy L, Fourcaud T, Stokes A (2005a) A numerical investigation into the influence of soil type and root architecture on tree anchorage. Plant Soil 278:119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dupuy L, Fourcaud T, Stokes A (2005b) A numerical investigation into factors affecting the anchorage of roots in tension. Eur J Soil Sci 56:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dupuy L, Fourcaud T, Stokes A, Danjon F (2005c) A density based approach for the modelling of root architecture: application to Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) root systems. J Theor Biol 236:323–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dupuy L, Fourcaud T, Lac P, Stokes A (2007) A generic 3D finite element model of tree anchorage integrating soil mechanics and real root system architecture. Am J Bot 94:1506–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dyanat Nejad H, Neville P (1972) Etude du mode d’action du méristème radical orthotrope dans le contrôle de la plagiotropie des racines chez Theobroma cacao L. Rev Générale Bot 79:319–340Google Scholar
  54. Easson DL, Pickles SJ, White EM (1995) A study of the tensile force required to pull wheat roots from soil. Ann Appl Biol 127:363–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Edelin C, Atger C (1994) Stem and root tree architecture: questions for plant biomechanics. Biomimetics 2:253–266Google Scholar
  56. Eissenstat DM (1991) On the relationship between specific root length and the rate of root proliferation: a field study using citrus rootstocks. New Phytol 118:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Eissenstat DM, Wells CE, Yanai RD, Whitbeck JL (2000) Building roots in a changing environment: implications for root longevity. New Phytol 147:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ennos AR (1989) The mechanics of anchorage in seedlings of sunflower, Helianthus-annuus L. New Phytol 113:185–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ennos AR (1990) The anchorage of leek seedlings—the effect of root length and soil strength. Ann Bot 65:409–416Google Scholar
  60. Estaun V, Vicente S, Calvet C, Camprubi A, Busquets M (2007) Integration of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation in hydroseeding technology. Effects on plant growth and inter-species competition. Land Degrad Develop 18:621–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fan C, Su C (2009) Effect of soil moisture content on the deformation behaviour of root-reinforced soils subjected to shear. Plant Soil (in press). doi:10.1007/s11104-008-9856-1
  62. Farley RA, Fitter AH (1999) The response of seven co-occurring woodland herbaceous perennials to localized nutrient-rich patches. J Ecol 87:849–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fitter AH (1985) Functional significance of root morphology and root system architecture. In: Fitter AH, Atkinson D, Read DJ, Usher MB (eds) Ecological interactions in soil. Blackwell Scientific, London, pp 87–106 British Ecological Society Special Publication No. 4Google Scholar
  64. Fitter AH, Stickland TR, Harvey ML, Wilson GW (1991) Architectural analysis of plant root systems. 1. Architectural correlates of exploitation efficiency. New Phytol 118:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fourcaud T, Zhang X, Stokes A, Lambers H, Körner C (2008) Plant growth modelling and applications: the increasing importance of plant architecture in growth models. Ann Bot 101:1053–1063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fournier M, Stokes A, Coutand C, Fourcaud T, Moulia B (2006) Tree biomechanics and growth strategies in the context of forest functional ecology. In: Herrel A, Speck T, Rowe N (eds) Biomechanics: a mechanical approach to the ecology of animals and plants. CRC Press, LCC, USA, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  67. Gabet EJ, Dunne T (2002) Landslides on coastal sage-scrub and grassland hillslopes in a severe El Niño winter: the effects of vegetation conversion on sediment delivery. Geol Soc Am Bull 114:983–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Genet M, Stokes A, Salin F, Mickovski SB, Fourcaud T, Dumail J, van Beek LPH (2005) The influence of cellulose content on tensile strength in tree roots. Plant Soil 278:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Genet M, Stokes A, Fourcaud T, Li M, Luo T (2006) Effect of altitude on root mechanical and chemical properties of Abies georgei in Tibet. In: Salmen L (ed) Proc. 5th Plant Biomechanics Conference. STFI-Packforsk AB, Sweden, pp 305–310Google Scholar
  70. Genet M, Kokutse N, Stokes A, Fourcaud T, Cai X, Ji J, Mickovski SB (2008) Root reinforcement in plantations of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don: effect of tree age and stand structure on slope stability. For Ecol Manag 256:1517–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Genet M, Stokes A, Fourcaud T, Norris J (2009) The influence of plant diversity on slope stability in moist evergreen deciduous forest. Ecol Eng (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.05.018
  72. Girouard RM (1995) Root form and stability of outplanted trees: results of a 1989 survey. Arboric J 19:121–146Google Scholar
  73. Goss MJ (1977) Effects of mechanical impedance on root growth in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) I. Effects on the elongation and branching of seminal roots. J Exp Bot 28:96–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Graefe S, Hertel D, Leuschner C (2008) Fine root dynamics along a 2, 000-m elevation transect in South Ecuadorian mountain rainforests. Plant Soil 313:155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Greenway DR (1987) Vegetation and slope stability. In: Anderson MG, Richards KS (eds) Slope stability. Wiley, Chichester, pp 187–230Google Scholar
  76. Greenwood JR (2006) Slip4ex—a program for routine slope stability analysis to include the effects of vegetation, reinforcement and hydrological changes. Geotech Geol Eng 24:449–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Guerrero-Campo J, Palacio S, Perez-Rontome C, Montserrat-Marti G (2006) Effect of root system morphology on root-sprouting and shoot-rooting abilities in 123 plant species from eroded lands in North-east Spain. Ann Bot 98:439–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hackett C (1972) A method of applying nutrients locally to roots under controlled conditions and some morphological effects of locally applied nitrate on the branching of wheat roots. Aus J Biol Sci 25:1169–1180Google Scholar
  79. Halle F, Oldeman RAA (1970) Essai sur l’architecture et la dynamique de croissance des arbres tropicaux. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  80. Hendricks JJ, Hendrick RL, Wilson CA, Mitchell RJ, Pecot SD, Guo D (2006) Assessing the patterns and controls of fine root dynamics: an empirical test and methodological review. J Ecol 94:40–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hermann RK (1977) Growth and production of tree roots. In: Marshall JK (ed) The belowground ecosystem: a synthesis of plant-associated processes. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, pp 7–28Google Scholar
  82. Hodge A (2004) The plastic plant: root responses to heterogeneous supplies of nutrients. New Phytol 162:9–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hodge A, Robinson D, Fitter AH (2000) An arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum enhances root proliferation in, but not nitrogen capture from, nutrient-rich patches in soil. New Phytol 145:575–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hubble TC, Docker BB, Rutherfurd ID (2009) The role of riparian trees in maintaining river bank stability: a review on Australian experience and practice. Ecol Eng (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.04.006
  85. Huber-Sannwald E, Pyke DA, Caldwell MM (1996) Morphological plasticity following species–species recognition and competition in two perennial grasses. Am J Bot 83:919–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Huber-Sannwald E, Pyke DA, Caldwell MM (1997) Perception of neighbouring plants by rhizomes and roots: morphological manifestations of a clonal plant. Can J Bot 75:2146–2157Google Scholar
  87. Jackson M, Roering JJ (2009) Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA. Quat Sci Rev 28:1131–1146Google Scholar
  88. Jackson RB, Canadell J, Ehleringer JR, Mooney HA, Sala OE, Schulze ED (1996) A global analysis of root distributions for terrestrial biomes. Oecologia 108:389–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jenik J (1978) Roots and root systems in tropical trees: morphologic and ecologic aspects. In: Tomlinson P, Zimmermann M (eds) Tropical trees as living systems. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 323–349Google Scholar
  90. Jourdan C, Rey H, Guédon Y (1995) Architectural analysis and modelling of the branching process of the young oil-palm root system. Plant Soil 177:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kahn F (1983) Architecture comparée des forêts tropicales humides et dynamique de la rhizosphère. PhD Thesis, Université Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc Montpellier, FranceGoogle Scholar
  92. Karrenberg S, Blaser S, Kollmann J, Speck T, Edwards PJ (2003) Root anchorage of saplings and cuttings of woody pioneer species in a riparian environment. Funct Ecol 17:170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kazda M, Schmid L (2008) Clustered distribution of tree roots and soil water exploitation. In: Lüttge U, Beyschlag W, Büdel B, Francis D (eds) Progress in botany 70. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 219–235Google Scholar
  94. Khuder H (2007) L’architecture et les propriétés mécaniques des systèmes racinaires des arbres qui poussent en pente. PhD thesis, Université Bordeaux I, FranceGoogle Scholar
  95. Khuder H, Danjon F, Stokes A, Fourcaud T (2006) Growth response and root architecture of Black locust seedlings growing on slopes and subjected to mechanical perturbation. In: Salmen L (ed) Proceedings of the 5th Plant Biomechanics Conference. STFI-Packforsk AB, Sweden, pp 299–304Google Scholar
  96. Khuder H, Stokes A, Danjon F, Gouskou K, Lagane F (2007) Is it possible to manipulate root anchorage in young trees? Plant Soil 294:87–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kiss JZ, Miller KM, Ogden LA, Roth KK (2002) Phototropism and gravitropism in lateral roots of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol 43:35–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kokutse N, Fourcaud T, Kokou K, Neglo K, Lac P (2006) 3D Numerical modelling and analysis of the influence of forest structure on hill slopes stability. In: Marui H, Marutani T, Watanabe N, Kawabe H, Gonda Y, Kimura M, Ochiai H, Ogawa K, Fiebiger G, Heumader J, Rudolf-Miklau F, Kienholz H, Mikos M (eds) Interpraevent 2006, disaster mitigation of debris flows, slope failures and landslides. Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, pp 561–567. ISBN 4-946443-98-3Google Scholar
  99. Konopka B, Pages L, Doussan C (2009) Soil compaction modifies morphological characteristics of seminal maize roots. Plant Soil Environ 55:1–10Google Scholar
  100. Körner C, Renhardt U (1987) Dry matter partitioning and root length/leaf area ratios in herbaceous perennial plants with diverse altitudinal distribution. Oecologia 74:411–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Köstler JN, Bruckner E, Bibelriether H (1968) Die Wurzeln der Waldbaume. Verlag Paul Parey, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  102. Kutschera L, Lichtenegger E (1997) Wurzeln. Bewurzelung von Pflanzen in Verschiedenen Lebensräumen. Stapfia 49, Land Oberösterreich, OÖ. Landesmuseum, Linz, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  103. Lambers H, Chapin FS III, Pons TL (2008) Plant physiological ecology. Springer Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  104. Loades KW, Bengough AG, Bransby MF, Hallett PD (2009) Planting density influence on fibrous root reinforcement of soils. Ecol Eng (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.02.005
  105. Lucas M, Godin C, Jay Allemand C, Laplaze L (2008) Auxin fluxes in the root apex co-regulate gravitropism and lateral root initiation. J Exp Bot 59:55–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mattia C, Bischetti GB, Gentile F (2005) Biotechnical characteristics of root systems of typical Mediterranean species. Plant Soil 278:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. May LH, Chapman FH, Aspinall D (1965) Quantitative studies of root growth I: the effect of nutrient concentration. Aus J Biol Sci 18:25–35Google Scholar
  108. May LH, Randles FH, Aspinall D, Paleg LG (1967) Quantitative studies of root growth II: growth in the early stages of development. Aus J Biol Sci 20:273–283Google Scholar
  109. McGill BJ, Enquist BJ, Weiher E, Westoby M (2006) Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits. Trends Ecol Evol 21:178–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McKenzie BM, Bengough AG, Hallett PD, Thomas WTB, Forster BP, McNicol JW (2009) Deep rooting and drought screening of cereal crops: a novel field-based method and its application. Field Crops Research 112:165–171Google Scholar
  111. McKyes E (1985) Soil cutting and tilling. Developments in agricultural engineering. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  112. Megahan WF (1983) Hydrologic effects of clearcutting and wildlife on steep granitic slopes in Idaho. Water Resour Res 19:811–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Mersereau RC, Dyrness CT (1972) Accelerated mass wasting after logging and slash burning in western Oregon. J Soil Water Conserv 27:112–114Google Scholar
  114. Mickovski SB, van Beek LPH (2009) Root morphology and soil reinforcement effects of young vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) plants grown in a semi-arid climate. Plant Soil (in press). doi:10.1007/s11104-009-0130-y
  115. Mickovski SB, van Beek LPH, Salin F (2005) Uprooting resistance of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Plant Soil 278:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mickovski SB, Bengough AG, Bransby MF, Davies MCR, Hallett PD, Sonnenberg R (2007) Material stiffness, branching pattern and soil matric potential affect the pullout resistance of model root systems. Eur J Soil Sci 58:1471–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mickovski SB, Hallett PD, Bransby MF, Davies MCR, Sonnenberg R, Bengough AG (2009) Mechanical reinforcement of soil by willow roots: impacts of root properties and root failure mechanism. Soil Sci Soc Am J 73:1276–1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Miyazaki T (2006) Water flow in soils, 2nd edn. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  119. Mullen JL, Wolverton C, Hangarter RP (2005) Apical control, gravitropic signaling, and the growth of lateral roots in Arabidopsis. Adv Space Res 36:1211–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Nakamura H, Nghiem QM, Iwasa N (2007) Reinforcement of tree roots in slope stability: a case study from the Ozawa slope in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. In: Stokes A, Spanos I, Norris JE, Cammeraat LH (eds) Eco- and ground bio-engineering: the use of vegetation to improve slope stability. Developments in plant and soil sciences vol. 103. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 81–90Google Scholar
  121. Nicoll BC, Berthier S, Achim A, Gouskou K, Danjon F, van Beek LPH (2006) The architecture of Picea sitchensis structural root systems on horizontal and sloping terrain. Trees-Struct Func 20:701–712Google Scholar
  122. Noguchi S, Tsuboyama Y, Sidle RC, Hosoda I (1997) Spatially distributed morphological characteristics of macropores in forest soils of Hitachi Ohta Experimental Watershed. Japan Jap J For Res 2:207–215Google Scholar
  123. Norman SA, Schaetzl RJ, Small TW (1995) Effects of slope angle on mass movement by tree uprooting. Geomorphology 14:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Norris JE (2005) Root reinforcement by hawthorn and oak roots on a highway cut-slope in Southern England. Plant Soil 278:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Norris JE, Stokes A, Mickovski SB, Cammeraat E, van Beek LPH, Nicoll B, Achim A (eds) (2008) Slope stability and erosion control: ecotechnological solutions. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  126. Operstein V, Frydman S (2000) The influence of vegetation on soil strength. Ground Improvement 4:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Osman N, Barakbah SS (2006) Parameters to predict slope stability—soil water and root profiles. Ecol Eng 28:90–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Palenzuela J, Azcon-Aguilar C, Figueroa D, Caravaca F, Roldan A, Barea JM (2002) Effects of mycorrhizal inoculation of shrubs from Mediterranean ecosystems and composted residue application on transplant performance and mycorrhizal developments in a desertified soil. Biol Fert Soils 36:170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Passioura JB (1988) Water transport in and into roots. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 39:245–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Passioura JB (1991) Soil structure and plant-growth. Aust J Soil Res 29:717–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Perillo CA, Gupta SC, Nater EA, Moncrief JF (1999) Prevalence and initiation of preferential flow paths in a sandy loam with argillic horizon. Geoderma 89:307–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Pierret A, Latchackak K, Chathanvongsa P, Sengtaheuanghoung O, Valentin C (2007) Interactions between root growth, slope and soil detachment depending on land use: a case study in a small mountain catchment of Northern Laos. Plant Soil 301:51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Pohl M, Alig D, Körner C, Rixen C (2009) Higher plant diversity enhances soil stability in disturbed alpine ecosystems. Plant Soil (in press). doi:10.1007/s11104-009-9906-3
  134. Pollen N (2007) Temporal and spatial variability in root reinforcement of streambanks: accounting for soil shear strength and moisture. Catena 69:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Pollen N, Simon A (2005) Estimating the mechanical effects of riparian vegetation on stream bank stability using a fiber bundle model. Water Res Res 41:W07025. doi:10.1029/2004WR003801 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pollen-Bankhead N, Simon A (2009) Enhanced application of root-reinforcement algorithms for bank-stability modeling. Earth Surf Proc Land 34(4):471–480. doi:10.1002/esp.1690 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Poorter H, Remkes C (1990) Leaf area ratio and net assimilation rate of 24 wild species differing in relative growth rate. Oecologia 83:553–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Poot P, Lambers H (2008) Shallow-soil endemics: adaptive advantages and constraints of a specialized root-system morphology. New Phytol 178:371–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Portas CAM, Taylor HM (1976) Growth and survival of young plant roots in dry soil. Soil Sci 121:170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Preti F, Dani A, Laio F (2009) Root profiles assessment by means of hydrological, pedological and above-ground vegetation information for bio-engineering purposes. Ecol Eng (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.07.010
  141. Reubens B, Poesen J, Danjon F, Geudens G, Muys B (2007) The role of fine and coarse roots in shallow slope stability and soil erosion control with a focus on root system architecture: a review. Trees: Struct Func 21:385–402Google Scholar
  142. Reubens B, Poesen J, Nyssen J, Leduc Y, Zenebe A, Tewoldeberhan S, Bauer H, Gebrehiwot K, Deckers J, Muys B (2009) Establishment and management of woody seedlings in gullies in a semi-arid environment (Tigray, Ethiopia). Plant Soil (in press). doi:10.1007/s11104-009-0097-8
  143. Rice RM, Foggin GT (1971) Effect of high intensity storms on soil slippage on mountainous watersheds in southern California. Water Resour Res 7:1485–1496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Roering JJ, Schmidt KM, Stock JD, Dietrich WE, Montgomery DR (2003) Shallow landsliding, root reinforcement, and the spatial distribution of trees in the Oregon Coast Range. Can Geotech J 40:237–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Roumet C, Urcelay C, Díaz S (2006) Suites of root traits differ between annual and perennial species growing in the field. New Phytol 170:357–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rune G (2003) Slits in container wall improve root structure and stem straightness of outplanted Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fenn 37:333–342Google Scholar
  147. Sakai A, Sakai S, Akiyama F (1997) Do sprouting tree species on erosion-prone sites carry large reserves of resources? Ann Bot 79:625–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sakals ME, Sidle RC (2004) A spatial and temporal model of root cohesion in forest soils. Can J For Res 34:950–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sasse J, Sands R (1997) Configuration and development of root systems of cuttings and seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus. New Forests 14:85–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sati SP, Sundriyal YP (2007) Role of some species in slope instability. Himalayan Geol 28:75–78Google Scholar
  151. Schenk HJ (2008) Soil depth, plant rooting strategies and species’ niches. New Phytol 178:223–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Schenk HJ, Jackson RB (2002) Rooting depths, lateral spreads, and below-ground/above-ground allometries of plants in water-limited ecosystems. J Ecol 90:480–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schiechtl HM (1980) Bioengineering for land reclamation and conservation. University of Alberta Press, EdmontonGoogle Scholar
  154. Schmidt KM, Roering JJ, Stock JD, Dietrich WE, Montgomery DR, Schaub T (2001) Root cohesion variability and shallow landslide susceptibility in the Oregon Coast. Range Can Geotech J 38:995–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Schwarz M, Preti F, Giadrossich F, Lehmann P, Or D (2009) Quantifying the role of vegetation in slope stability: a case study in Tuscany (Italy). Ecol Eng (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.06.014
  156. Scippa GS, Di Michele M, Di Iorio A, Costa A, Lasserre B, Chiatante D (2006) The response of Spartium junceum roots to slope: anchorage and gene factors. Ann Bot 97:857–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sharp RE, Poroyko V, Hejlek LG, Spollen WG, Springer GK, Bohnert HJ, Nguyen HT (2004) Root growth maintenance during water deficits: physiology to functional genomics. J Exp Bot 55:2343–2351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Sidle RC (1992) A theoretical model of the effects of timber harvesting on slope stability. Water Resour Res 28:1897–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sidle RC, Burt TP (2009) Temperate forests and rangelands. In: Slaymaker O, Spencer T, Embleton-Hamann C (eds) Geomorphology and Global Environmental Change, Chapter 12. Cambridge University Press, UK, pp 321–343Google Scholar
  160. Sidle RC, Ochiai H (2006) Landslides: processes, prediction, and land use. Am Geophysical Union, Water Resour Monogr No. 18. AGU, Washington, DC, p 312Google Scholar
  161. Sidle RC, Pearce AJ, O’Loughlin CL (1985) Hillslope stability and land use. Am Geophysical Union, Water Resour Monogr 11. Washington, DC, p 140Google Scholar
  162. Sidle RC, Ziegler AD, Negishi JN, Abdul Rahim N, Siew R, Turkelboom F (2006) Erosion processes in steep terrain—truths, myths, and uncertainties related to forest management in Southeast Asia. For Ecol Manage 224:199–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Simon A, Collison JC (2002) Quantifying the mechanical and hydrologic effects of riparian vegetation on streambank stability. Earth Surf Proc Land 27:527–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sinnett D, Morgan G, Williams M, Hutchings TR (2008) Penetration resistance and tree root development. Soil Use Manag 24:273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Snyman HA (2006) A greenhouse study on root dynamics of cactus pears. Opuntia ficus-indica and O. robusta. J Arid Env 65:529–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Soethe N, Lehmann J, Engels C (2006) Root morphology and anchorage of six native tree species from a tropical montane forest and an elfin forest in Ecuador. Plant Soil 279:173–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Spoor G, Godwin RJ (1979) Soil deformation and shear-strength characteristics of some clay soils at different moisture contents. J Soil Sci 30:483–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Stangl R, Hochbichler E, Bellos P, Florineth F (2009) Allometric estimation of the above-ground biomass components of Alnus incana (L.) Moench used for landslide stabilisation at Bad Goisern (Austria). Plant Soil (in press). doi:10.1007/s11104-008-9888-6
  169. Stokes A, Fitter AH, Coutts MP (1995) Responses of young trees to wind: effects on root architecture and anchorage strength. J Exp Bot 46:1139–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Stokes A, Ball J, Fitter AH, Brain P, Coutts MP (1996) An experimental investigation into the resistance of model root systems to uprooting. Ann Bot 78:415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Stokes A, Lucas A, Jouneau L (2007) Plant biomechanical strategies in response to frequent disturbance: uprooting of Phyllostachys nidularia (Poaceae) growing on landslide prone slopes in Sichuan. China Am J Bot 94:1129–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Stokes A, Norris JE, van Beek LPH, Bogaard T, Cammeraat E, Mickovski SB, Jenner A, di Iorio A, Fourcaud T (2008) How vegetation reinforces soil on slopes. In: Norris JE, Stokes A, Mickovski SB, Cammeraat E, van Beek LPH, Nicoll B, Achim A (eds) Slope stability and erosion control: ecotechnological solutions. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 65–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Stokes A, Sotir R, Chen W, Ghestem M (2009) Soil bio- and eco-engineering in China: past experience and future priorities. Ecol Eng (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.07.008
  174. Stone EL, Kalisz PJ (1991) On the maximum extent of tree roots. For Ecol Manage 46:59–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Swanston DN, Swanson FJ (1976) Timber harvesting, mass erosion, and steepland forest geomorphology in the Pacific Northwest. In: Coates DR (ed) Geomorphology and engineering. Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Stroudsburg, pp 199–221Google Scholar
  176. Szota C, Veneklaas EJ, Koch JM, Lambers H (2007) Root architecture of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) trees in relation to post-mining deep ripping in Western Australia. Rest Ecol 15:S65–S73Google Scholar
  177. Tarantino A, Mongiovi L, McDougall JR (2002) Analysis of hydrological effects of vegetation on slope stability. In: Juca JFT, de Campos TMP, Marinho FAM (eds) Unsaturated soils: proceedings of the third international conference on unsaturated soils. UNSAT, RecifeGoogle Scholar
  178. Tasser E, Mader M, Tappeiner U (2003) Effects of land use in alpine grasslands on the probability of landslides. Basic Appl Ecol 4:271–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Thaler P, Pagès L (2000) Why are laterals less affected than main axes by homogeneous unfavourable physical conditions? A model-based hypothesis. In: Stokes A (ed) The supporting roots of trees and woody plants: form, function and physiology. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 209–215Google Scholar
  180. Thongo M’bou A, Jourdan C, Deleporte P, Nouvellon Y, Saint-André L, Bouillet J-P, Mialoundama F, Mabiala A, Epron D (2008) Root elongation in tropical Eucalyptus plantations: effect of soil water content. Ann For Sci 65:609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Tosi M (2007) Root tensile strength relationships and their slope stability implications of three shrub species in the Northern Apennines (Italy). Geomorphology 87:268–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Tsakaldimi M, Tsitsoni T, Ganatsas P, Zagas T (2009) A comparison of root architecture and shoot morphology between naturally regenerated and container-grown seedlings of Quercus ilex. Plant Soil (in press). doi:10.1007/s11104-009-9974-4
  183. Tsuboyama Y, Sidle RC, Noguchi S, Hosoda I (1994) Flow and solute transport through the soil matrix and macropores of a hillslope segment. Water Resour Res 30:879–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Tsutsumi D, Kosugi K, Mizuyama T (2003) Root-system development and water-extraction model considering hydrotropism. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67:387–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. van Beek LPH, Wint J, Cammeraat LH, Edwards JP (2005) Observation and simulation of root reinforcement on abandoned Mediterranean slopes. Plant Soil 278:55–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Vogt KA, Vogt DJ, Palmiotto PA, Boon P, O’Hara J, Asbjornsen H (1996) Review of root dynamics in forest ecosystems grouped by climate, climatic forest type and species. Plant Soil 187:159–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Vogt J, Fonti P, Conedera M, Schroder B (2006) Temporal and spatial dynamic of stool uprooting in abandoned chestnut coppice forests. Forest Ecol Manag 235:88–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Waldron LJ (1977) Shear resistance of root-permeated homogeneous and stratified soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 41:843–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Waldron LJ, Dakessian S (1982) Effect of grass, legume and tree roots on soil shearing resistance. J Soil Sci Soc Am 46:894–899Google Scholar
  190. Walker LR, Velazquez E, Shiels AB (2009) Applying lessons from ecological succession to the restoration of landslides. Plant Soil (in press). doi:10.1007/s11104-008-9864-1
  191. Wang X, Yang D, Yang W, Clary CR, Shang S (2009) Simulation of land use-soil interactive effects on water and sediment yields at watershed scale. Ecol Eng (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.11.011
  192. Watson A, Phillips C, Marden M (1999) Root strength, growth, and rates of decay: root reinforcement changes of two tree species and their contribution to slope stability. Plant Soil 217:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Watt M, McCully ME, Jeffree CE (1993) Plant and bacterial mucilages of the maize rhizosphere—comparison of their soil binding-properties and histochemistry in a model system. Plant Soil 151:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Westoby M, Wright IJ (2006) Land-plant ecology on the basis of functional traits. Trends Ecol Evol 21:261–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Wilkinson PL, Anderson MG, Lloyd DM, Renaud JP (2002) Landslide hazard and bioengineering: towards providing improved decision support through integrated numerical model development. Env Model Soft 17:333–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Wright IJ, Westoby M (1999) Differences in seedling growth behaviour among species trait correlations across species and trait shifts along nutrient compared to rainfall gradients. J Ecol 87:85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Wu TH (1976) Investigation of landslides on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, Geotechnical Engr. Report N°5, dept. of Civil Engr. Ohio State University, Columbus, p 94Google Scholar
  198. Wu TH (2007) Root reinforcement: analyses and experiments. In: Norris JE, Stokes A, Mickovski SB, Cammeraat E, van Beek LPH, Nicoll B, Achim A (eds) Slope stability and erosion control: ecotechnological solutions. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 21–30Google Scholar
  199. Wu TH, McKinnel WP, Swanston DN (1979) Strength of tree roots and landslides on Prince of Wales Island. Alaska Can Geotech J 16:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Zhang J, Dong Y (2009) Factors affecting species diversity of plant communities and the restoration process in the loess area of China. Ecol Eng (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.04.001
  201. Ziemer RR (1981) The role of vegetation in the stability of forested slopes. Proceedings of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, XVII World Congress. Kyoto, Japan. Vol. I, pp 297–308Google Scholar
  202. Zobel RW (1996) Genetic control of root systems. In: Waisel Y, Eshel A, Kafkafi U (eds) Plant roots: the hidden half. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 21–30Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexia Stokes
    • 1
  • Claire Atger
    • 2
  • Anthony Glyn Bengough
    • 3
  • Thierry Fourcaud
    • 4
  • Roy C. Sidle
    • 5
  1. 1.INRAUMR AMAPMontpellier Cedex 5France
  2. 2.Pousse Conseil, Domaine de Fitzgerald, Le Mas RougeChemin du Mas RougeLattesFrance
  3. 3.Scottish Crop Research InstituteDundeeUK
  4. 4.CIRADUMR AMAPMontpellier Cedex 5France
  5. 5.Appalachian State University, Department of GeologyBooneUSA

Personalised recommendations