Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, 313:227 | Cite as

Characterisation of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) roots under different growing conditions

  • Stefano AmaducciEmail author
  • Alessandro Zatta
  • Marco Raffanini
  • Gianpietro Venturi
Regular Article

Abstract

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is mainly grown for its fibre and is considered a desirable crop for sustainable production systems. In a field trial carried out over two years in Northern Italy the root system of a hemp crop, cultivated at contrasting plant densities, was sampled and analysed with an image analysis software. Root length density (RLD) was highest in the first 10 cm of soil, almost 5 cm cm−3; it decreased progressively until the depth of 130 cm, a part from a peak at 90–100 cm in response to a perched water table. Roots were found to 130 cm of depth in one year and to 200 cm in the other. Root diameter was finer (190 μm) in the upper soil layer, it increased with depth until 100 cm, and remained constant at 300 μm thereafter. Following the same trend of RLD, root biomass was highest in the first soil layer; 50% of the root biomass was found in the first 20 cm or 50 cm when taproot biomass was considered or not. Total root biomass was 3.21 t ha−1 and 2.41 t ha−1 in the two years of trial, but the ratio between aboveground and below ground biomass was constant at 5.46. None of the root parameters were significantly affected by plant population, which seems to confirm the plastic behaviour that hemp shows for aboveground development. The high root biomass production measured in this study, especially in deeper soil layers, provides additional evidence of the positive role that hemp can play in sustainable cropping systems.

Keywords

Hemp Image analysis Root growth Soil texture 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Research described in this paper was financed by the European Commission in the frame of the project HEMP SYS (Design, Development and Up-Scaling of a Sustainable Production System for HEMP Textiles: An Integrated Quality SYStems Approach) contact number QLK5-CT-2002-01363.

References

  1. Amaducci S (2003) HEMP-SYS: design, development and up-scaling of a sustainable production system for HEMP textiles – an integrated quality SYStem approach. J Ind Hemp 8:79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amaducci S, Errani M, Venturi G (2002) Response of hemp to plant population and nitrogen fertilization. Ital J Agron 6(2):103–111Google Scholar
  3. Amaducci S, Colauzzi M, Bellocchi G, Venturi G (2008) Modelling post-emergent hemp phenology (Cannabis sativa L.): theory and evaluation. Eur J Agron 28:90–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amato M, Ritchie JT (2002) Spatial distribution of roots and water uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) as affected by soil structure. Crop Sci 42:773–780Google Scholar
  5. Anderson EL (1987) Corn root growth and distribution as influenced by tillage and nitrogen fertilization. Agron J 79:544–549Google Scholar
  6. Barber SA (1995) Soil nutrient bioavailability. A mechanistic approach. Wiley, New York, NY, p 414Google Scholar
  7. Bauhus J, Messier C (1999) Evaluation of fine root length and diameter measurements obtained using RHIZO image analysis. Agron J 91:142–147Google Scholar
  8. Berger J (1969) The world’s major fibre crops: their cultivation and manuring. Centre D’Etude de l’Azote, Zurich, p 219Google Scholar
  9. Biewinga EE, Van der Bijl G (1996) Sustainability of energy crops in Europe. Centre for Agriculture & Environment, CLM 234, Utrecht, p 209Google Scholar
  10. Bòcsa I, Karus M (1998) The cultivation of hemp: botany, varieties, cultivation and harvesting. Hemptech, Sebastopol, CA (USA), p 184Google Scholar
  11. Bouma TJ, Nielsen KL, Koutstaal B (2000) Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerised analysis of root length and diameter. Plant Soil 218:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chassot A, Richner W (2002) Root characteristics and phosphorus uptake of maize seedlings in a bilayered soil. Agron J 94:118–127Google Scholar
  13. Chassot A, Stamp P, Richner W (2001) Root distribution and morphology of maize seedling as affected by tillage and fertilizer placement. Plant Soil 231:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng W, Coleman DC, Box JE Jr (1990) Root dynamics, production and distribution in agroecosystems on the Georgia Piedmont using minirhizotrons. J Appl Ecol 27:592–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cochrane HR, Aylmore LAG (1994) The effects of plant roots on soil structure, Proceedings of 3rd Triennial Conference “Soils 94”, p 207–212Google Scholar
  16. Costa C, Dwyer LM, Hamilton RI, Hamel C, Nantais L, Smith DL (2000) A sampling method for measurement of large root systems with scanner-based image analysis. Agron J 92:621–627Google Scholar
  17. De Freitas PL, Zobel RW, Snyder VA (1999) Corn root growth in soil columns with artificially constructed aggregates. Crop Sci 39:725–730Google Scholar
  18. Doussan C, Pagès L, Pierret A (2003) Soil exploration and resource acquisition by plant roots: an architectural and modelling point of view. Agronomie 23:419–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eissenstat DM (1992) Costs and benefits of constructing roots of small diameter. J Plant Nutr 15:763–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eissenstat DM, Well CE, Yanai RD, Whitbeck JL (2000) Building roots in a changing environment: implications for root longevity. New Phytol 147:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gale MR, Grigal DF (1987) Vertical root distributions of northern tree species in relation to successional status. Can J For Res 17:829–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gerwitz A, Page ER (1974) An empirical mathematical model to describe plant root systems. J Appl Ecol 11:773–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gorchs G, Llovers J, Comas J (2000) Effect of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a crop rotation hemp–wheat in the humid cool areas of North-eastern of Spain. In proceeding of the Conference: Crop development for the cool and wet regions of Europe (COST Action 814), Pordenone, Italy, pp 581–589Google Scholar
  24. Gregory PJ (2006a) Plant roots: growth, activity and interaction with soils. Blackwell, UKGoogle Scholar
  25. Gregory PJ (2006b) Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? Eur J Soil Sci 57:2–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hadley P, Causton DR (1984) Changes in percentage organic carbon content during ontogeny. Planta 160:97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Himmelbauer ML, Loiskandl W, Kastanek F (2004) Estimating length, average diameter and surface area of roots using two different image analyses systems. Plant Soil 260:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Holanda FSR, Mengel DB, Paula MB, Carvaho JG, Bertoni JC (1998) Influence of crop rotations and tillage systems on phosphorus and potassium stratification and root distribution in the soil profile. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 29:2383–2394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jackson RB, Canadell J, Ehleringer JR, Mooney HA, Sala OE, Schulze ED (1996) A global analysis of root distributions for terrestrial biomes. Oecologia 108:389–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kage H, Kochler M, Stutzel H (2000) Root growth of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. botrytis) under unstressed condition: measurement and modeling. Plant Soil 223:131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. King J, Gay A, Sylvester-Bradley R, Bingham I, Foulkes J, Gregory PJ, Robinson D (2003) Modelling cereal root system for water and nitrogen capture: towards an economic optimum. Ann Bot 91:383–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kirchmann H, Thorvaldsson G (2000) Challenging targets for future agriculture. Eur J Agron 12:145–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lemus R, Lal R (2005) Bioenergy crop and carbon sequestration. Crit Rev Plant Sci 24:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liebig MA, Johnson HA, Hanson JD, Frank AB (2005) Soil carbon under switchgrass stands and cultivated cropland. Biomass Bioenergy 28:347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lotz LAP, Groeneveld RMW, Habekotté B, van Oene H (1991) Reduction of growth and reproduction of Cyperus esculentus by specific crops. Weed Res 31:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lynch JP (1995) Root architecture and plant productivity. Plant Physiol 109:7–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Matechera SA, Alston AM, Kirby JM, Dexter AR (1992) Influence of root diameter on the penetration of seminal roots into a compacted subsoil. Plant Soil 144:297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mediavilla V, Jonquera M, Schmid-Slembrouck I, Soldati A (1998) A decimal code for growth stages of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). J Int Hemp Assoc 5(2):65, 68–74Google Scholar
  39. Monroe CD, Kladivko EJ (1987) Aggregate stability of a silt loam soil as affected by roots of corn, soybeans, and wheat. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 18(9):1077–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mosca G, Govi G, Archetti R, Bonciarelli F, Mazzoncini M, Rubino P, Ruggiero C e Venezia G (1992) Effetti della lavorazione del terreno sullo sviluppo degli apparati radicali di frumento (Triticum aestivum L. e Triticum durum Desf.). Riv Agron 26(3):223–231Google Scholar
  41. Newman EI (1966) A method of estimating the total length of root in a sample. J Appl Ecol 3:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Passioura JB (2002) Soil conditions and plant growth. Plant Cell Environ 25:311–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pietola LM (2005) Root growth dynamics of spring cereals with discontinuation of mouldboard ploughing. Soil Till Res 80:103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Piper EL, Weiss A (1993) Defoliation during vegetative growth of corn: the shoot:root ratio and yield implications. Field Crops Res 31:145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Qin RJ, Stamp P, Richner W (2004) Impact of tillage on root systems of winter wheat. Agron J 96:1523–1530Google Scholar
  46. Qin RJ, Stamp P, Richner W (2006) Impact of tillage on maize in a cambisol and luvisol in Switzerland. Soil Till Res 85:50–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Robertson WS, Fukai S, Hammer GL, Ludlow MM (1993) Modelling root growth of grain sorghum using CERES approach. Field Crop Res 33:113–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rosolem CA, Foloni JSS, Tiritan CS (2002) Root growth and nutrient accumulation in cover crops as affected by soil compaction. Soil Till Research 65:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schenk HJ, Jackson RB (2002) Rooting depths, lateral spreads, and belowground/aboveground allometries of plants in water-limited ecosystems. J Ecol 90:480–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stickland D (1995) Suitability of hemp for ecological agriculture. In Proceedings of the Symposium Bioresurce Hemp, pp 255–258Google Scholar
  51. Tennant D (1975) A test of a modified line intersect method of estimating root length. J Ecol 63:995–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Upendra MS, Bharat P, Singh B, Wayne Whitehead F (2005) Tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization effects on cotton and sorghum root biomass, carbon, and nitrogen. Agron J 97:1279–1290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vamerali T, Guarise M, Ganis A, Bona S, Mosca G (2003a) Analysis of root image from auger sampling with a fast procedure: a case of application to sugar beet. Plant Soil 255:387–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vamerali T, Saccomani M, Bona S, Mosca G, Guarise M, Ganis A (2003b) A comparison of root characteristics in relation to nutrient and water stress in two maize hybrids. Plant Soil 255:157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Veen BW (1980) Energy cost of ion transport. In: Rains DW, Valentine RC, Holaender C (eds) Genetic engineering of osmoregulation. Impact on plant productivity for food, Chemicals and Energy. Plenum, New York, pp 187–195Google Scholar
  56. Venturi G, Amaducci MT (1997) Effetti di dosi di azoto e densità di semina su produzione e caratteristiche tecnologiche di Cannabis sativa L. Riv Agron 3:616–623Google Scholar
  57. Venturi G, Amaducci MT (1999) Le colture da fibra. Ed agricole ISBN-88-206-4288-3Google Scholar
  58. Wechsung G, Wechsung F, Wall GW, Adamsen FJ, Kimball BA, Garcia RL, Pinter PJ Jr, Kartschall T (1995) Biomass and growth rate of a spring wheat root system grown in free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and ample soil moisture. J Biogeogr 22:623–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. van der Werf HMG, Turunen L (2008) The environmental impacts of the production of hemp and flax textile yarn. Ind Crop Prod 27:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. van der Werf HMG, Wijlhuizen M, de Schutter JAA (1995) Plant density and self-thinning yield and quality of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Field Crop Res 40:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wilhelm WW, Mielke LN, Fenster CR (1982) Root development of winter wheat as related to tillage practice in western Nebraska. Agron J 74:85–88Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Amaducci
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alessandro Zatta
    • 2
  • Marco Raffanini
    • 2
  • Gianpietro Venturi
    • 2
  1. 1.Istituto di Agronomia Generale e Coltivazioni ErbaceeUniversità Cattolica del Sacro Cuore sede di PiacenzaPiacenzaItaly
  2. 2.DiSTA (Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie AgroambientaliUniversità degli studi di BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations