Plant and Soil

, Volume 309, Issue 1–2, pp 43–76 | Cite as

Magnitude and biophysical regulators of methane emission and consumption in the Australian agricultural, forest, and submerged landscapes: a review

  • R. C. Dalal
  • D. E. Allen
  • S. J. Livesley
  • G. Richards
Regular Article

Abstract

Increases in the concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) due to human activities are associated with global climate change. CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has increased by 33% (to 380 ppm) since 1750 ad, whilst CH4 concentration has increased by 75% (to 1,750 ppb), and as the global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 is 25 fold greater than CO2 it represents about 20% of the global warming effect. The purpose of this review is to: (a) address recent findings regarding biophysical factors governing production and consumption of CH4, (b) identify the current level of knowledge regarding the main sources and sinks of CH4 in Australia, and (c) identify CH4 mitigation options and their potential application in Australian ecosystems. Almost one-third of CH4 emissions are from natural sources such as wetlands and lake sediments, which is poorly documented in Australia. For Australia, the major anthropogenic sources of CH4 emissions include energy production from fossil fuels (~24%), enteric fermentation in the guts of ruminant animals (~59%), landfills, animal wastes and domestic sewage (~15%), and biomass burning (~5%), with minor contributions from manure management (1.7%), land use, land-use change and forestry (1.6%), and rice cultivation (0.2%). A significant sink exists for CH4 (~6%) in aerobic soils, including agricultural and forestry soils, and potentially large areas of arid soils, however, due to limited information available in Australia, it is not accounted for in the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. CH4 emission rates from submerged soils vary greatly, but mean values ≤10 mg m−2 h−1 are common. Landfill sites may emit CH4 at one to three orders of magnitude greater than submerged soils. CH4 consumption rates in non-flooded, aerobic agricultural, pastoral and forest soils also vary greatly, but mean values are restricted to ≤100 μg m−2 h−1, and generally greatest in forest soils and least in agricultural soils, and decrease from temperate to tropical regions. Mitigation options for soil CH4 production primarily relate to enhancing soil oxygen diffusion through water management, land use change, minimised compaction and soil fertility management. Improved management of animal manure could include biogas capture for energy production or arable composting as opposed to open stockpiling or pond storage. Balanced fertiliser use may increase soil CH4 uptake, reduce soil N2O emissions whilst improving nutrient and water use efficiency, with a positive net greenhouse gas (CO2-e) effect. Similarly, the conversion of agricultural land to pasture, and pastoral land to forestry should increase soil CH4 sink. Conservation of native forests and afforestation of degraded agricultural land would effectively mitigate CH4 emissions by maintaining and enhancing CH4 consumption in these soils, but also by reducing N2O emissions and increasing C sequestration. The overall impact of climate change on methanogenesis and methanotrophy is poorly understood in Australia, with a lack of data highlighting the need for long-term research and process understanding in this area. For policy addressing land-based greenhouse gas mitigation, all three major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) should be monitored simultaneously, combined with improved understanding at process-level.

Keywords

Agricultural soils Desert soils Forest soils Methane emission Methane oxidation Savanna soils Wetlands 

References

  1. AGO (2007) National Greenhouse Gas Inventory 2005 Australian Greenhouse Office, Department of Environment and Heritage, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen DE, Dalal RC, Rennenberg H, Meyer RL, Reeves S, Schmidt S (2007) Spatial and temporal variation of nitrous oxide and methane flux between subtropical mangrove sediments and the atmosphere. Soil Biol Biochem 39:622–631Google Scholar
  3. Altor AE, Mitsch WJ (2006) Methane flux from created riparian marshes: relationship to intermittent versus continuous inundation and emergent macrophytes. Ecol Engin 28:224–234Google Scholar
  4. Amaral JA, Knowles R (1995) Growth of methanotrophs in methane and oxygen counter gradients. FEMS Microbiol Letters 126:215–220Google Scholar
  5. Ambus P, Andersen BL, Kemner M, Sørensen B, Wille J (2002) Natural carbon isotopes used to study methane consumption and production in soil. Isot Environ Health Stud 38:149–157Google Scholar
  6. Ambus P, Christensen S (1995) Spatial and seasonal nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in Danish forest-, grassland-, and agroecosystems. J Environ Qual 24:993–1001Google Scholar
  7. Ambus P, Robertson GP (2006) The effect of increased N deposition on nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from unmanaged forest and grassland communities in Michigan. Biogeochem 79:315–337Google Scholar
  8. Arif SMA, Houwen F, Verstraete W (1996) Agricultural factors affecting methane oxidation in arable soil. Biol Fert Soils 21:95–102Google Scholar
  9. Auman AJ, Speake CC, Lidstrom ME (2001) nifH sequences and nitrogen fixation in type I and type II methanotrophs. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4009–4016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2004) ABS Yearbook Australia: Agricultural Crops, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  11. Awasthi KD, Sitaula BK, Singh BR, Bajracharya RM (2005) Fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide from soil under forest, grazing land, irrigated rice and rainfed field crops in a watershed of Nepal. Biol Fert Soils 41:163–172Google Scholar
  12. Babu JY, Nayak DR, Adhya TK (2006) Potassium application reduces methane emission from a flooded field planted to rice. Biol Fert Soils 42:532–541Google Scholar
  13. Ball BC, Dobbie KE, Parker JP, Smith KA (1997) The influence of gas transport and porosity on methane oxidation in soils. J Geophys Res D, Atmospheres 102:23301–23308Google Scholar
  14. Ball BC, Scott A, Parker JP (1999) Field N2O, CO2 and CH4 fluxes in relation to tillage, compaction and soil quality in Scotland. Soil Tillage Res 53:29–39Google Scholar
  15. Bartlett KB, Harriss RC (1993) Review and assessment of methane emissions from wetlands. Chemosphere 26:261–320Google Scholar
  16. Basiliko N, Yavitt JB (2001) Influence of Ni, Co, Fe, and Na additions on methane production in Sphagnum-dominated Northern American peatlands. Biogeochem 52:133–153Google Scholar
  17. Bastviken D, Ejlertsson J, Tranvik L (2002) Measurement of methane oxidation in lakes, A comparison of methods. Environ Sci Tech 36:3354–3361Google Scholar
  18. Bedard C, Knowles R (1989) Physiology, biochemistry, and specific inhibitors of CH4, \({\text{NH}}^{ + }_{4} \), and CO oxidation by methanotrophs and nitrifiers. Microbiol Reviews 53:68–84Google Scholar
  19. Beeton RJS, Buckley KI, Jones GJ, Morgan D, Reichelt RE, Dennis T (2006 Australian State of the Environment Committee) 2006 Australia State of the Environment 2006, Independent report to the Australian Government Minister for the Environment and Heritage, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  20. Benstead J, King GM (2001) The effect of soil acidification on atmospheric methane uptake by a Maine forest soil. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 34:207–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bergamaschi P, Harris GW (1995) Measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios (13CH4/12CH4, 12CH3D/12CH4) in landfill methane using tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer. Global Biogeoch Cycles 9:439–447Google Scholar
  22. Bignell DE, Eggleton P, Nunes L, Thomas KL (1997) Termites as mediators of carbon fluxes in tropical forests: Budgets for carbon dioxide and methane emissions. In: Watt AD, Stork NE (eds) Forest and Insects. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 109–134Google Scholar
  23. Bodelier PLE, Laanbroek HJ (2004) Nitrogen as a regulatory factor of methane oxidation in soils and sediments. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 47:265–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bodelier PLE, Roslev P, Henckel T, Frenzel P (2000) Stimulation by ammonium-based fertilizers of methane oxidation in soil around rice roots. Nature 403:421–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Boeckx P, Van Cleemput O, Meyer T (1998) The influence of land use and pesticides on methane oxidation in some Belgian soils. Soils and climate change. Biol Fert Soils 27:293–298Google Scholar
  26. Boeckx P, Van Cleemput O, Villaralvo I (1997) Methane oxidation in soils with different textures and land use. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 49:91–95Google Scholar
  27. Bollag JM, Czlonkowski ST (1973) Inhibition of methane formation in soil by various nitrogen-containing compounds. Soil Biol Biochem 5:673–678Google Scholar
  28. Boon PI, Lee K (1997) Methane oxidation in sediments of a floodplain wetland in south-eastern Australia. Letters Appl Microbiol 25:138–142Google Scholar
  29. Boon PI, Mitchell A (1995) Methanogenesis in the sediments of an Australian freshwater wetland, Comparison with aerobic decay, and factors controlling methanogenesis. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 18:175–190Google Scholar
  30. Boon PI, Mitchell A, Lee A (1997) Effects of wetting and drying on methane emissions from ephemeral floodplain wetlands in south-eastern Australia. Hydrobiol 357:73–87Google Scholar
  31. Borken W, Brumme R, Xu YJ (2000) Effects of prolonged soil drought on CH4 oxidation in a temperate spruce forest. J Geophys Res D, Atmospheres 105:7079–7088Google Scholar
  32. Borken W, Davidson EA, Savage K, Sundquist ET, Steudler P (2006) Effect of summer throughfall exclusion, summer drought, and winter snow cover on methane fluxes in a temperate forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1388–1395Google Scholar
  33. Borken W, Xu YJ, Beese F, Xu YJ (2003) Conversion of hardwood forests to spruce and pine plantations strongly reduced soil methane sink in Germany. Global Change Biol 9:956–966Google Scholar
  34. Bossio DA, Horwath WR, Mutters RG, Van Kessel C (1999) Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation. Soil Biol Biochem 31:1313–1322Google Scholar
  35. Bousquet P, Ciais P, Miller JB, Dlugokencky EJ, Hauglustaine DA, Prigent C, Van Der Werf GR, Peylin P, Brunke EG, Carouge C, Langenfelds RL, Lathière J, Papa F, Ramonet M, Schmidt M, Steele LP, Tyler SC, White J (2006) Contribution of anthropogenic and natural sources to atmospheric methane variability. Nature 443:439–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bowden RD, Rullo G, Stevens GR, Steudler PA (2000) Soil fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane at a productive temperate deciduous forest. J Environ Qual 29:268–276Google Scholar
  37. Bradford MA, Ineson P, Wookey PA, Lappin-Scott HM (2000) Soil CH4 oxidation, response to forest clearcutting and thinning. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1035–1038Google Scholar
  38. Bradford MA, Ineson P, Wookey PA, Lappin-Scott HM (2001a) Role of CH4 oxidation, production and transport in forest soil CH4 flux. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1625–1631Google Scholar
  39. Bradford MA, Wookey PA, Ineson P, Lappin-Scott HM (2001b) Controlling factors and effects of chronic nitrogen and sulphur deposition on methane oxidation in a temperate forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 33:93–102Google Scholar
  40. Bridgham SD, Richardson CJ (1992) Mechanisms controlling soil respiration (CO2 and CH4) in southern peatlands. Soil Biol Biochem 24:1089–1099Google Scholar
  41. Bronson KF, Mosier AR (1994) Suppression of methane oxidation in aerobic soil by nitrogen fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors, and urease inhibitors. Biol Fert Soils 17:263–268Google Scholar
  42. Bronson KF, Singh U, Neue HU, Abao EB Jr (1997) Automated chamber measurements of methane and nitrous oxide flux in a flooded rice soil, II. Fallow period emissions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:988–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bull ID, Parekh NR, Hall GH, Ineson P, Evershed RP (2000) Detection and classification of atmospheric methane oxidizing bacteria in soil. Nature 405:175–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Butterbach-Bahl K, Kock M, Willibald G, Hewett B, Buhagiar S, Papen H, Kiese R (2004) Temporal variations of fluxes of NO, NO2, N2O, CO 2, and CH4 in a tropical rain forest ecosystem. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 18:GB, 3012 1-11Google Scholar
  45. Butterbach-Bahl K, Papen H (2002) Four years continuous record of CH4-exchange between the atmosphere and untreated and limed soil of an N-saturated spruce and beech forest ecosystem in Germany. Plant Soil 240:77–90Google Scholar
  46. Bykova S, Boeckx P, Kravchenko I, Galchenko V, Van Cleemput O (2007) Response of CH4 oxidation and methanotrophic diversity to \({\text{NH}}^{ + }_{4} \) and CH4 mixing ratios. Biol Fert Soils 43:341–348Google Scholar
  47. Cai Z, Mosier AR (2000) Effect of NH4Cl addition on methane oxidation by paddy soils. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1537–1545Google Scholar
  48. Castaldi S, Costantini M, Cenciarelli P, Ciccioli P, Valentini R (2007) The methane sink associated to soils of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Italy. Chemosphere 66:723–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Castaldi S, De Pascale RA, Grace J, Nikonova N, Montes R, San José J (2004) Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from soils of the Orinoco savanna under different land uses. Global Change Biol 10:1947–1960Google Scholar
  50. Castaldi S, Ermice A, Strumia S (2006) Fluxes of N2O and CH4 from soils of savannas and seasonally-dry ecosystems. J. Biogeography 33:401–415Google Scholar
  51. Castaldi S, Fierro A (2005) Soil-atmosphere methane exchange in undisturbed and burned Mediterranean shrubland of southern Italy. Ecosys 8:182–190Google Scholar
  52. Castro MS, Steudler PA, Melillo JM, Aber JD, Bowden RD (1995) Factors controlling atmospheric methane consumption by temperate forest soils. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 9:1–10Google Scholar
  53. Chaban B, Ng SYM, Jarrell KF (2006) Archaeal habitats – from the extreme to the ordinary. Can J Microbiol 52:73–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Chan ASK, Parkin TB (2001a) Effect of land use on methane flux from soil. J Environ Qual 30:786–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Chan ASK, Parkin TB (2001b) Methane oxidation and production activity in soils from natural and agricultural ecosystems. J Environ Qual 30:1896–1903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Chan ASK, Prueger JH, Parkin TB (1998) Comparison of closed-chamber and Bowen-ratio methods for determining methane flux from peatland surfaces. J Environ Qual 27:232–239Google Scholar
  57. Chan ASK, Steudler PA, Bowden RD, Gulledge J, Cavanaugh CM (2005) Consequences of nitrogen fertilization on soil methane consumption in a productive temperate deciduous forest. Biol Fert Soils 41:182–189Google Scholar
  58. Chanton JP, Whiting GJ, Blair NE, Lindau CW, Bollich PK (1997) Methane emission from rice, stable isotopes, diurnal variations, and CO2 exchange. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 11:15–27Google Scholar
  59. Cheng W, Yagi K, Sakai H, Kobayashi K (2006) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on CH4 and N2O emission from rice soil, An experiment in controlled-environment chambers. Biogeochem 77:351–373Google Scholar
  60. Chin KJ, Conrad R (1995) Intermediary metabolism in methanogenic paddy soil and the influence of temperature. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 18:85–102Google Scholar
  61. Chin K, Lukow T, Conrad R (1999) Effect of temperature on structure and function of the methanogenic archaeal community in an anoxic rice field soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:2341–2349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Cicerone RJ, Oremland RS (1988) Biogeochemical aspects of atmospheric methane. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 2:299–327Google Scholar
  63. Coleman DD, Risatti JB, Schoell M (1981) Fractionation of carbon and hydrogen isotopes by methane-oxidizing bacteria. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45:1033–1037Google Scholar
  64. Conrad R (2005) Quantification of methanogenic pathways using stable carbon isotopic signatures, a review and a proposal. Org Geochem 36:739–752Google Scholar
  65. Cook SA, Shiemke AK (1996) Evidence that copper is a required cofactor for the membrane-bound form of methane monooxygenase. J Inorg Biochem 63:273–284Google Scholar
  66. Corton TM, Bajita JB, Grospe FS, Pamplona RR, Asis CA Jr, Wassmann R, Lantin RS, Buendia L V (2000) Methane emission from irrigated and intensively managed rice fields in Central Luzon (Philippines). Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 58:37–53Google Scholar
  67. Coventry RJ, Holt JA, Sinclair DF (1988) Nutrient cycling by mound-building termites in low-fertility soils of semi-arid tropical Australia. Aust J Soil Res 26:375–390Google Scholar
  68. Cui J, Li C, Sun G, Trettin C (2005) Linkage of MIKE SHE to Wetland-DNDC for carbon budgeting and anaerobic biogeochemistry simulation. Biogeochem 72:147–167Google Scholar
  69. Dalal RC, Wang W, Robertson GP, Parton WJ (2003) Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agricultural lands and mitigation options, a review. Aust J Soil Res 41:165–195Google Scholar
  70. Dale AW, Regnier P, Van Cappellen P (2006) Bioenergetic controls on anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in coastal marine sediments, a theoretical analysis. Am J Sci 306:246–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Del Grosso SJ, Mosier AR, Parton WJ, Ojima DS (2005) DAYCENT model analysis of past and contemporary soil N2O and net greenhouse gas flux for major crops in the USA. Soil Tillage Res 83:9–24Google Scholar
  72. Del Grosso SJ, Parton WJ, Mosier AR, Ojima DS, Potter CS, Borken W, Brumme R, Butterbach-Bahl K, Crill PM, Dobbie K, Smith KA (2000) General CH4 oxidation in natural and managed systems. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 14:999–1019Google Scholar
  73. Denier Van Der Gon HAC, Neue HU (1995) Methane emission from a wetland rice field as affected by salinity. Plant Soil 170:307–313Google Scholar
  74. Denmead OT (1983) Micrometeorological methods for measuring gaseous losses of nitrogen in the field. In: Freney JR, Simpson JR (eds) Gaseaous loss of nitrogen from plant-soil systems. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague, pp 133–157Google Scholar
  75. Denmead OT (2007) Approaches to measuring fluxes of trace gases between landscapes and atmosphere. Plant Soil this special issue (under review)Google Scholar
  76. Denmead OT, Harper LA, Freney JR, Griffith DWT, Leuning R, Sharpe RR (1998) A mass balance method for non-intrusive measurements of surface-air trace gas exchange. Atmos Environ 32:3679–3688Google Scholar
  77. de Visscher A, Schippers M, Van Cleemput O (2001) Short-term kinetic response of enhanced methane oxidation in landfill cover soils to environmental factors. Biol Fert Soils 33:231–237Google Scholar
  78. Devol AH, Richey JE, Forsberg BR, Martinelli LA (1990) Seasonal dynamics in methane emissions from the Amazon River floodplain to the troposphere. J Geophys Res 95:16417–16426Google Scholar
  79. Dobbie KE, Smith KA, Prieme A, Christensen S, Degorska A, Orlanski P (1996) Effect of land use on the rate of methane uptake by surface soils in northern Europe. Atmos Environ 30:1005–1011Google Scholar
  80. Donohue R, Hill MJ, Holloway J, Houlder P, Leslie R, Smith J, Thackway R (2005) Australia’s rangelands: an analysis of natural resources, patterns of use and community assets. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Australian Government, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  81. Dorr H, Katruff L, Levin I (1993) Soil texture parameterization of the methane uptake in aerated soils. Chemosphere 26:697–713Google Scholar
  82. Dueck TA, de VIsser R, Poorter H, Persijn S, Gorissen A, de Visser W, Schapendonk A, Verhagen J, Snel J, Harren FJM, Ngai AKY, Verstappen F, Bouwmeester H, Voesnek LACJ, van der Werf A (2007) No evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants, a 13C labelling apporach. New Phytol 175:29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Dunfield P, Knowles R, Dumont R, Moore TR (1993) Methane production and consumption in temperate and subarctic peat soils, response to temperature and pH. Soil Biol Biochem 25:321–326Google Scholar
  84. Dunfield PF, Topp E, Archambault C, Knowles R (1995) Effect of nitrogen fertilizers and moisture content on CH4 and N2O fluxes in a humisol, Measurements in the field and intact soil cores. Biogeochem 29:199–222Google Scholar
  85. Environment Australia (2001) A directory of important wetlands in Australia, 3rd edn. Environment Australia, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  86. Fernandes SAP, Bernoux M, Cerri CC, Feigl BJ, Piccolo MC (2002) Seasonal variation of soil chemical properties and CO2 and CH4 fluxes in unfertilized and P-fertilized pastures in an Ultisol of the Brazilian Amazon. Geoderma 107:227–241Google Scholar
  87. Fest B, Livesley SJ, Drösler M, Butterbach-Bahl K, Leuning R, Arndt S (2007) Spatial and temporal variation of soil based greenhouse gas emissions in a cool temperate Eucalyptus forest in SE Australia. In Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Australian-New Zealand Landscapes, Research Forum, 15–16 May 2007, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  88. Flessa H, Wild U, Klemisch M, Pfadenhauer J (1998) Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from organic soils under agriculture. Eur J Soil Sci 49:327–335Google Scholar
  89. Ford PW, Boon PI, Lee K (2002) Methane and oxygen dynamics in a shallow floodplain lake: the significance of periodic stratification. Hydrobiologia 485:97–110Google Scholar
  90. Forster P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Bernsten T, Betts R, Fahey DW, Haywood J, Lean J, Lowe DC, Myhre G, Nganga J, Prinn R, Raga G, Schutz M, Van Dorland R (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp 129–234Google Scholar
  91. Fowler D (1999) Experimental designs appropriate for flux determination in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In: Bouwman AF (ed) Approaches to scaling a trace gas fluxes in ecosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 101–121Google Scholar
  92. Frenzel P, Bosse U, Janssen PH (1999) Rice roots and methanogenesis in a paddy soil, ferric iron as an alternative electron acceptor in the rooted soil. Soil Biol Biochem 31:421–430Google Scholar
  93. Galbally IE, Fraser PJ, Meyer CP, Griffith DWT (1992) Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of trace gases over Australia. In: Gifford RM, Barson MM (eds) Australia’s renewable resources, sustainability and global change. Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra, pp 117–149Google Scholar
  94. Grant RF (1998) Simulation of methanogenesis in the mathematical model ecosys. Soil Biol Biochem 30:883–896Google Scholar
  95. Grant RF (1999) Simulation of methanotrophy in the mathematical model ecosys. Soil Biol Biochem 31:287–297Google Scholar
  96. Greenway M (2005) The role of constructed wetlands in secondary effluent treatment and water reuse in subtropical and arid Australia. Ecol Engineer 25:501–509Google Scholar
  97. Gregorich EG, Rochette P, Hopkins DW, McKim UF, St-Georges P (2006) Tillage-induced environmental conditions in soil and substrate limitation determine biogenic gas production. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2614–2628Google Scholar
  98. Griffith DWT, Leuning R, Denmead OT, Jamie IM (2002) Air-land exchanges of CO2, CH4 and N2O measured by FTIR spectrometry and micrometeorological techniques. Atmos Environ 36:1833–1842Google Scholar
  99. Gulledge J, Schimel JP (1998) Low-concentration kinetics of atmospheric CH4 oxidation in soil and mechanism of NH4 inhibition. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:4291–4298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hanson RS, Hanson TE (1996) Methanotrophic bacteria. Microbiol Reviews 60:439–471Google Scholar
  101. Hao WM, Scharffe D, Crutzen PJ, Sanhueza E (1988) Production of N2O, CH4, and CO2 from soils in the tropical savanna during the dry season. J Atmos Chem 7:93–105Google Scholar
  102. Happell JD, Chanton JP, Showers WS (1994) The influence of methane oxidation on the stable isotopic composition of methane emitted from Florida swamp forests. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:4377–4388Google Scholar
  103. Harper LA, Denmead OT, Freney JR, Byers FM (1999) Direct measurements of methane emissions from grazing and feedlot cattle. J Animal Sci 77:1392–1401Google Scholar
  104. Holmes AJ, Costello A, Lidstrom ME, Murrell JC (1995) Evidence that particulate methane monooxygenase and ammonia monooxygenase may be evolutionarily related. FEMS Microbiol Letters 132:203–208Google Scholar
  105. Holmes AJ, Roslev P, McDonald IR, Iversen N, Henriksen K, Murrell JC (1999) Characterisation of methanotrophic bacterial populations in soils showing atmospheric methane uptake. Appl Environ. Microbiol 65:3312–3318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Holter P (1997) Methane emissions from Danish cattle dung pats in the field. Soil Biol Biochem 29:31–37Google Scholar
  107. Hornibrook ERC, Longstaffe FJ, Fyfe WS (1997) Spatial distribution of microbial methane production pathways in temperate zone wetland soils, stable carbon and hydrogen isotope evidence. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:745–753Google Scholar
  108. Horz HP, Rich V, Avrahami S, Bohannan BJM (2005) Methane-oxidizing bacteria in a California upland grassland soil, diversity and response to simulated global change. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:2642–2652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hou AX, Chen GX, Wang ZP, Van Cleemput O, Patrick WH Jr (2000) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a rice field in relation to soil redox and microbiological processes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:2180–2186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Howden SM, Reyenga PJ (1999) Methane emissions from Australian livestock, implications of the Kyoto protocol. Aus J Agric Res 50:1285–1291Google Scholar
  111. Howden SM, White DH, Bowman PJ (1996) Managing sheep grazing systems in southern Australia to minimise greenhouse gas emissions, adaptation of an existing simulation model. Ecol Modelling 86:201–206Google Scholar
  112. Hudgens DE, Yavitt JB (1997) Land-use effects on soil methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in forests near Ithaca, New York. Ecosci 4:214–222Google Scholar
  113. Hurst DF, Griffith DWT, Cook GD (1994) Trace gas emissions from biomass burning in tropical Australian savannas. J Geophys Res 99(D8):16441–16456Google Scholar
  114. Husin YA, Murdiyarso D, Khalil MAK, Rasmussen RA, Shearer MJ, Sabiham S, Sunar A, Adijuwana H (1995) Methane flux from Indonesian wetland rice, the effects of water management and rice variety. Chemosphere 31:3153–3180Google Scholar
  115. Hutsch BW (1998a) Tillage and land use effects on methane oxidation rates and their vertical profiles in soil. Biol Fert Soils 27:284–292Google Scholar
  116. Hutsch BW (1998b) Methane oxidation in arable soil as inhibited by ammonium, nitrite, and organic manure with respect to soil pH. Biol Fert Soils 28:27–35Google Scholar
  117. Inubushi K, Otake S, Furukawa Y, Shibasaki N, Ali M, Itang AM, Tsuruta H (2005) Factors influencing methane emission from peat soils, comparison of tropical and temperate wetlands. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 71:93–99Google Scholar
  118. IPCC (2006) 2006 IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Inventories. In: Eggleston HS, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds) National greenhouse inventories programme. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hayama, Kanagawa, JapanGoogle Scholar
  119. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007, the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p 21Google Scholar
  120. IPCC-SRES (2006) Scenario data for the atmospheric environment. The IPCC Data Distribution Centre. http://www.ipcc-data.org/sres/ddc_sres_emissions.html
  121. Ishizuka S, Iswandi A, Nakajima Y, Yonemura S, Sudo S, Tsuruta H, Murdiyarso D (2005) The variation of greenhouse gas emissions from soils of various land-use/cover types in Jambi province, Indonesia. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 71:17–32Google Scholar
  122. Jacinthe PA, Lal R (2005) Labile carbon and methane uptake as affected by tillage intensity in a Mollisol. Soil Tillage Res 80:35–45Google Scholar
  123. Jacinthe PA, Lal R (2006) Methane oxidation potential of reclaimed grassland soils as affected by management. Soil Sci 171:772–783Google Scholar
  124. Jackel U, Thummes K, Kampfer P (2005) Thermophilic methane production and oxidation in compost. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 52:175–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Jang I, Lee S, Hong JH, Kang H (2006) Methane oxidation rates in forest soils and their controlling variables, a review and a case study in Korea. Ecol Res 21:849–854Google Scholar
  126. Janzen HH, Angers DA, Boehm M, Bolinder M, Desjardins RL, Dyer JA, Ellert BH, Gibb DJ, Gregorich EG, Helgason BL, Lemke R, Massé D, McGinn SM, McAllister TA, Newlands N, Pattey E, Rochette P, Smith W, VandenBygaart AJ, Wang H (2005) A proposed approach to estimate and reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from whole farms. Can J Soil Sci 86:401–418Google Scholar
  127. Jarrell KF, Kalmokoff ML (1988) Nutritional requirements of the methanogenic archeabacteria. Can J Microbiol 34:557–576Google Scholar
  128. Jarvis SC, Lovell RD, Panayides R (1995) Patterns of methane emission from excreta of grazing animals. Soil Biol Biochem 27:1581–1588Google Scholar
  129. Kammann C, Grünhage L, Jäger HJ (2001) A new sampling technique to monitor concentrations of CH4, N2O and CO2 in air at well-defined depths in soils with varied water potential. Eur J Soil Sci 52:297–303Google Scholar
  130. Kang H, Freeman C (2002) The influence of hydrochemistry on methane emissions from two contrasting northern wetlands. Water Air Soil Pollut 141:263–272Google Scholar
  131. Karakashev D, Batstone DJ, Trably E, Angelidaki I (2006) Acetate oxidation is the dominant methanogenic pathway from acetate in the absence of Methanosaetaceae. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5138–5141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Keerthisinghe DG, Freney JR, Mosier AR (1993) Effect of wax-coated calcium carbide and nitrapyrin on nitrogen loss and methane emission from dry-seeded flooded rice. Biol Fert Soils 16:71–75Google Scholar
  133. Keller M, Reiners WA (1994) Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane under secondary succession of pasture to forest in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 8:399–409Google Scholar
  134. Keppler F, Hamilton JTG, Braß M, Röckmann T (2006) Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. Nature 439:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kessavalou A, Mosier AR, Doran JW, Drijber RA, Lyon DJ, Heinemeyer O (1998) Fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in grass sod and winter wheat-fallow tillage management. J Environ Qual 27:1094–1104Google Scholar
  136. Khalil MI, Baggs EM (2005) CH4 oxidation and N2O emissions at varied soil water-filled pore spaces and headspace CH4 concentrations. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1785–1794Google Scholar
  137. Khalil MAK, Rasmussen RA, French JR, Holt JA (1990) The influence of termites on atmospheric trace gases, CH4, CO2, CHCl3, N2O, CO, H2 and light hydrocarbons. J Geophys Res 95(D4):3619–3634Google Scholar
  138. Khmelenina VN, Kalyuzhnaya MG, Starostina NG, Suzina NE, Trotsenko YA (1997) Isolation and characterization of halotolerant alkaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria from Tuva soda lakes. Current Microbiol 35:257–261Google Scholar
  139. Kiese R, Hewett B, Graham A, Butterbach-Bahl K (2003) Seasonal variability of N2O-emissions and CH4-uptake from/by a tropical rainforest soil of Queensland, Australia. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 17:1043 (12–1)Google Scholar
  140. King GM, Adamsen APS (1992) Effects of temperature on methane consumption in a forest soil and in pure cultures of the methanotroph Methylomonas rubra. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:2758–2763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. King SL, Quay PD, Lansdown JM (1989) The 13C/12C kinetic isotope effect for soil oxidation of methane at ambient atmospheric concentrations. J Geophys Res 94(D15):18273–18277Google Scholar
  142. Kirschbaum MUF, Bruhn D, Etheridge DM, Evans JR, Farquhar GD, Gifford RM, Paul KI, Winters AJ (2006) A comment on the quantitative significance of aerobic methane release by plants. Functional Plant Biol 33:521–530Google Scholar
  143. Knief C, Kolb S, Bodelier PLE, Lipski A, Dunfield PF (2006) The active methanotrophic community in hydromorphic soils changes in response to changing methane concentration. Environ Microbiol 8:321–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Knief C, Vanitchung S, Harvey NW, Conrad R, Dunfield PF, Chidthaisong A (2005) Diversity of methanotrophic bacteria in tropical upland soils under different land uses. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:3826–3831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Kormann R, Müller H, Werle P (2001) Eddy flux measurements of methane over the fen ‘Murnauer Moos’, 11°11′E, 47°39′N, using a fast tunable diode laser spectrometer. Atmos Environ 35:2533–2544Google Scholar
  146. Kravchenko IK, Boeckx P, Galchenko V, Van Cleemput O (2002) Short- and medium-term effects of \({\text{NH}}^{ + }_{4} \) on CH4 and N2O fluxes in arable soils with a different texture. Soil Biol Biochem 34:669–678Google Scholar
  147. Kreuzwieser J, Buchholz J, Rennenberg H (2003) Emission of methane and nitrous oxide by Australian mangrove ecosystems. Plant Biol 5:423–431Google Scholar
  148. Kruger M, Frenzel P, Conrad R (2001) Microbial processes influencing methane emission from rice fields. Global Change Biol 7:49–63Google Scholar
  149. Kruger M, Frenzel P, Kemnitz D, Conrad R (2005) Activity, structure and dynamics of the methanogenic archaeal community in a flooded Italian rice field. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 51:323–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Kumaraswamy S, Ramakrishnan B, Sethunathan N (2001) Methane production and oxidation in an anoxic rice soil as influenced by inorganic redox species. J Environ Qual 30:2195–2201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Le Mer J, Roger P (2001) Production, oxidation, emission and consumption of methane by soils, a review. Eur J Soil Biol 37:25–50Google Scholar
  152. Leuning R, Denmead OT, Miyata A, Kim J (2000) Source/sink distributions of heat, water vapour, carbon dioxide and methane in a rice canopy estimated using Lagrangian dispersion analysis. Agric Forest Meteorol 104:233–249Google Scholar
  153. Li CS, Mosier A, Wassmann R, Cai Z, Zheng X, Huang Y, Tsuruta H, Boonjawat J, Lantin R (2004) Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from rice-based production systems, sensitivity and upscaling. Glob Biogeochem Cycl 18:GB1043, 1–19Google Scholar
  154. Li CS, Salas W, DeAngelo B, Rose S (2006) Assessing alternatives for mitigating net greenhouse gas emissions and increasing yields from rice production in china over the next twenty years. J Environ Qual 35:1554–1565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Lindau CW, Wickersham P, DeLaune RD, Collins JW, Bollick PK, Scott LM, Lambremont EN (1998) Methane and nitrous oxide evolution and 15N and 226Ra uptake as affected by application of gypsum and phosphogypsum to Louisiana rice. Agric Ecosys Environ 68:165–173Google Scholar
  156. Liu XJ, Mosier AR, Halvorson AD, Zhang FS (2006) The impact of nitrogen placement and tillage on NO, N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a clay loam soil. Plant Soil 280:177–188Google Scholar
  157. Livesley SJ, Arndt SK, Weston CJ, Kiese R, Butterbach-Bahl K (2007b) Trace gas exchange in a fertilised and unfertilised Eucalyptus globulus plantation. In: Forest soils and ecosystem health – conference proceeding, August 2007, Noosa, Queensland, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  158. Livesley SJ, Arndt SK, Weston CJ, Kiese R, Butterbach-Bahl K (2007c) Trace gas flux and the influence of soil water, temperature and nutrient status in fertilized and unfertilized sheep grazed pasture. Plant Soil, This special issue (under review)Google Scholar
  159. Livesley SJ, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kiese R, Weston CJ, Arndt SK (2007a) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions under land-use change from grazed pasture to Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus radiata plantations in Australia. Non-CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes in Australian–New Zealand landscapes, Research Forum, 15–16 May 2007, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  160. MacDonald JA, Eggleton P, Bignell DE, Forzi F, Fowler D (1998) Methane emission by termites and oxidation by soils, across a forest disturbance gradient in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve, Cameroon. Global Change Biol 4:409–418Google Scholar
  161. MacDonald JA, Jeeva D, Eggleton P, Davies R, Bignell DE, Fowler D, Lawton J, Maryati M (1999) The effect of termite biomass and anthropogenic disturbance on the CH4 budgets of tropical forests in Cameroon and Borneo. Global Change Biol 5:869–879Google Scholar
  162. Maljanen M, Jokinen H, Saari A, Strömmer R, Martikainen PJ (2006) Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes, and carbon dioxide production in boreal forest soil fertilized with wood ash and nitrogen. Soil Use Manage 22:151–157Google Scholar
  163. Mander U, Teiter S, Augustin J (2005) Emission of greenhouse gases from constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and from riparian buffer zones. Water Sci Tech 52:167–176Google Scholar
  164. Marani L, Alvala PC (2007) Methane emissions from lakes and floodplains in Pantanal, Brazil. Atmos Environ 41:1627–1633Google Scholar
  165. McCrabb GJ, Hunter RA (1999) Prediction of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical production systems. Aus J Agric Res 50:1335–1339Google Scholar
  166. McLain JET, Kepler TB, Ahmann DM (2002) Belowground factors mediating changes in methane consumption in a forest soil under elevated CO2. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 16:23–1–24-14Google Scholar
  167. McLain JET, Martens DA (2004) Studies of methane fluxes reveal that desert soils can mitigate global change. In: Eskew L (eds) Proceedings, 5th Conference on Research and Resource Management in the Southwestern Deserts. Connecting Mountain Islands and Desert Seas, Tucson, AZ. 11–15 May 2004. United States Forest Service, Tucson, AZGoogle Scholar
  168. McNamara NP, Chamberlain PM, Piearce TG, Sleep D, Black HIJ, Reay DS, Ineson P (2006) Impact of water table depth on forest soil methane turnover in laboratory soil cores deduced from natural abundance and tracer 13C stable isotope experiments. Isot Environ Health Stud 42:379–390Google Scholar
  169. Meyer CP, Galbally IE, Griffith DWT, Weeks IA, Wang YP (1998) Trace gas exchange between soil and atmosphere in southern NSW using flux chamber measurement techniques. Consultancy report 98-62. Attachment 1. Final Report to National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee, CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, Act, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  170. Meyer CP, Galbally IE, Wang Y, Weeks IA, Jamie I, Griffith DWT (2001) Two automatic chambers techniques for measuring soil–atmosphere exchanges of trace gases and results of their use in the OASIS field experiment. CSIRO Atmospheric Research Technical paper No. 51. CSIRO, Aspendale, Vic. Australia, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  171. Meyer CP, Galbally IE, Wang YP, Weeks IA, Tolhurst KG, Tomkins IB (1997) The enhanced emission of greenhouse gases from soil following prescribed burning in a southern eucalyptus forest. Final Report to the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee, CSIRO, Division of Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria, pp 1–66Google Scholar
  172. Minoda T, Kimura M, Wada E (1996) Photosynthates as dominant source of CH4 and CO2 in soil water and CH4 emitted to the atmosphere from paddy fields. J Geophys Res D, Atmospheres 101:21091–21097Google Scholar
  173. Miyajima T, Wada E, Hanba YT, Vijarnsorn P (1997) Anaerobic mineralization of indigenous organic matters and methanogenesis in tropical wetland soils. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:3739–3751Google Scholar
  174. Mohanty SR, Bharati K, Moorthy BTS, Ramakrishnan B, Rao VR, Sethunathan N, Adhya TK (2001) Effect of the herbicide butachlor on methane emission and ebullition flux from a direct-seeded flooded rice field. Biol Fert Soils 33:175–180Google Scholar
  175. Mohanty SR, Bodelier PLE, Floris V, Conrad R (2006) Differential effects of nitrogenous fertilizers on methane-consuming microbes in rice field and forest soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:1346–1354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Mosher BW, Czpiel PM, Hariss RC, Shorter JH, Kolb CE, McManus JB, Allwine E, Lamb BK (1999) Methane emissions at nine landfill sites in the northeastern United States. Environ Sci Tech 33:2088–2094Google Scholar
  177. Mosier AR, Delgado JA (1997) Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in grasslands in western Puerto Rico. Chemosphere 35:2059–2082Google Scholar
  178. Mosier AR, Delgado JA, Keller M (1998) Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in an acid Oxisol in western Puerto Rico, effects of tillage, liming and fertilization. Soil Biol Biochem 30:2087–2098Google Scholar
  179. Mosier AR, Morgan JA, King JY, LeCain D, Milchunas DG (2002) Soil-atmosphere exchange of CH4, CO2, NOx, and N2O in the Colorado shortgrass steppe under elevated CO2. Plant Soil 240:201–211Google Scholar
  180. Mosier AR, Parton WJ, Valentine DW, Ojima DS, Schimel DS, Delgado JA (1996) CH4 and N2O fluxes in the Colorado shortgrass steppe, 1. Impact of landscape and nitrogen addition. Glob Biogeochem Cycl 10:387–399Google Scholar
  181. Mosier A, Schimel D, Valentine D, Bronson K, Parton W (1991) Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in native, fertilized and cultivated grasslands. Nature 350:330–332Google Scholar
  182. Mosier A, Wassmann R, Verchot L, King J, Palm C (2004) Methane and nitrogen oxide fluxes in tropical agricultural soils, sources, sinks and mechanisms. Environ Develop Sus 6:1–49Google Scholar
  183. Myronova N, Kitmitto A, Collins R, Miyaji A, Dalton H (2006) Three-dimensional structure determination of a protein supercomplex that oxidizes methane to formaldehyde in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Biochem 45:11905–11914Google Scholar
  184. Nakagawa F, Yoshida N, Sugimoto A, Wada E, Yoshioka T, Ueda S, Vijarnsorn P (2002) Stable isotope and radiocarbon compositions of methane emitted from tropical rice paddies and swamps in Southern Thailand. Biogeochem 61:1–19Google Scholar
  185. Naser HM, Nagata O, Tamura S, Hatano R (2007) Methane emissions from five paddy fields with different amounts of rice straw application in central Hokkaido, Jap. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 53:95–101Google Scholar
  186. National Land and Water Resources Audit (2001) Land use change, productivity and diversification. Final Report of theme 5.1 to the National Land and Water Resources Audit. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry – Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  187. Nouchi I, Yonemura S (2005) CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from soybean and barley double-cropping in relation to tillage in Japan. Phyton – Ann Rei Bot 45:327–338Google Scholar
  188. Nugroho SG, Lumbanraja J, Suprapto H, Sunyoto AWS, Haraguchi H, Kimura M (1996) Three-year measurement of methane emission from an Indonesian paddy field. Plant Soil 181:287–293Google Scholar
  189. Olivier JGJ, Van Aardenne JA, Dentener FJ, Pagliari V, Laurens N, Ganzeveld LN, Peters JAHW (2005) Recent trends in global greenhouse emissions, regional trends 1970–2000 and spatial distribution of key sources in 2000. Environ Sci 2:81–99Google Scholar
  190. Otter LB, Scholes MC (2000) Methane sources and sinks in a periodically flooded South African savanna. Global Biogeochem Cycl 14:97–111Google Scholar
  191. Palm CA, Alegre JC, Arevalo L, Mutuo PK, Mosier AR, Coe R (2002) Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in six different land use systems in the Peruvian Amazon. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 16:21–1Google Scholar
  192. Papen H, Daum M, Steinkamp R, Butterbach-Bahl K (2001) N2O- and CH4- fluxes from soils of a N-limited and N-fertilized spruce forest ecosystem of the temperate zone. J Appl Bot 75:159–163Google Scholar
  193. Park JR, Moon S, Ahn YM, Kim JY, Nam K (2005) Determination of environmental factors influencing methane oxidation in a sandy landfill cover soil. Environ Tech 26:93–102Google Scholar
  194. Pathak H, Prasad S, Bhatia A, Singh S, Kumar S, Singh J, Jain MC (2003) Methane emission from rice–wheat cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic plain in relation to irrigation, farmyard manure and dicyandiamide application. Agric Ecosys Environ 97:309–316Google Scholar
  195. Phillips RL, Whalen SC, Schlesinger WH (2001) Influence of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on methane consumption in a temperate forest soil. Global Change Biol 7:557–563Google Scholar
  196. Powlson DS, Goulding KWT, Willison TW, Webster CP, Hütsch BW (1997) The effect of agriculture on methane oxidation in soil. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 49:59–70Google Scholar
  197. Price SJ, Kelliher FM, Sherlock RR, Tate KR, Condron LM (2004) Environmental and chemical factors regulating methane oxidation in a New Zealand forest soil. Aust J Soil Res 42:767–776Google Scholar
  198. Price SJ, Sherlock RR, Kelliher FM, McSeveny TM, Tate KR, Condron LM (2003) Pristine New Zealand forest soil is a strong methane sink. Global Change Biol 10:16–26Google Scholar
  199. Prieme A, Christensen S (1999) Methane uptake by a selection of soils in Ghana with different land use. J Geophys Res D, Atmospheres 104(D19):23617–23622Google Scholar
  200. Prieme A, Christensen S, Dobbie KE, Smith KA (1997) Slow increase in rate of methane oxidation in soils with time following land use change from arable agriculture to woodland. Soil Biol Biochem 29:1269–1273Google Scholar
  201. Prieme A, Ekelund F (2001) Five pesticides decreased oxidation of atmospheric methane in a forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 33:831–835Google Scholar
  202. Purvaja R, Ramesh R (2001) Natural and anthropogenic methane emission from coastal wetlands of South India. Environ Manage 27:547–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Quay P, Stutsman J, Wilbur D, Snover A, Dlugokencky E, Brown T (1999) The isotopic composition of atmospheric methane. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 13:445–461Google Scholar
  204. Rask H, Schoenau J, Anderson D (2002) Factors influencing methane flux from a boreal forest wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada. Soil Biol Biochem 34:435–443Google Scholar
  205. Rath AK, Ramakrishnan B, Sethunathan N (2002) Temperature dependence of methane production in tropical rice soils. Geomicrobiol J 19:581–592Google Scholar
  206. Reay DS, Nedwell DB, McNamara N, Ineson P (2005) Effect of tree species on methane and ammonium oxidation capacity in forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 37:719–730Google Scholar
  207. Reeburgh WS (1980) Anaerobic methane oxidation, rate depth distribution in Skan Bay sediments. Earth and Planetary Sci Letters 47:345–352Google Scholar
  208. Regina K, Pihlatie M, Esala M, Alakukku L (2007) Methane fluxes on boreal arable soils. Agric Ecosys Environ 119:346–352Google Scholar
  209. Reid RS, Thornton PK, McCrabb GJ, Kruska RL, Atieno F, Jones PG (2004) Is it possible to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in pastoral ecosystems of the tropics? Environ Develop Sus 6:91–109Google Scholar
  210. Robertson GP, Paul EA, Harwood RR (2000) Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture, Contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Sci 289:1922–1925Google Scholar
  211. Roden EE, Wetzel RG (1996) Organic carbon oxidation and suppression of methane production by microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction in vegetated and unvegetated freshwater wetland sediments. Limnol Oceanogr 41:1733–1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Roden EE, Wetzel RG (2003) Competition between Fe(III)-reducing and methanogenic bacteria for acetate in iron-rich freshwater sediments. Microbial Ecol 45:252–258Google Scholar
  213. Rodhe L, Pell M, Yamulki S (2006) Nitrous oxide, methane and ammonia emissions following slurry spreading on grassland. Soil Use Manage 22:229–237Google Scholar
  214. Rosenkranz P, Brüggemann N, Papen H, Xu Z, Seufert G, Butterbach-Bahl K (2006) N2O, NO and CH4 exchange, and microbial N turnover over a Mediterranean pine forest soil. Biogeosci 3:121–133Google Scholar
  215. Roslev P, Iversen N (1999) Radioactive fingerprinting of microorganisms that oxidize atmospheric methane in different soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:4064–4070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Roslev P, Iversen N, Henriksen K (1997) Oxidation and assimilation of atmospheric methane by soil methane oxidizers. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:874–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Roslev P, King GM (1996) Regulation of methane oxidation in a freshwater wetland by water table changes and anoxia. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 19:105–115Google Scholar
  218. Rusch H, Rennenberg H (1998) Black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) trees mediate methane and nitrous oxide emission from the soil to the atmosphere. Plant Soil 201:1–7Google Scholar
  219. Ruser R, Flessa H, Schilling R, Steindl H, Beese F (1998) Soil compaction and fertilization effects on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in potato fields. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:1587–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Russell-Smith J, Edwards AC, Cook GD (2003) Reliability of biomass burning estimates from savanna fires, Biomass burning in northern Australia during the 1999 biomass burning and lightning experiment B field campaign. J Geophys Res D, Atmospheres 108:BIB 9–1–BIB 9-12Google Scholar
  221. Saari A, Rinnan R, Martikainen PJ (2004) Methane oxidation in boreal forest soils, kinetics and sensitivity to pH and ammonium. Soil Biol Biochem 36:1037–1046Google Scholar
  222. Sahrawat KL (2004) Terminal electron acceptors for controlling methane emissions from submerged rice soils. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 35:1401–1413Google Scholar
  223. Sanhueza E, Cardenas L, Donoso L, Santana M (1994) Effect of plowing on CO, CO2, CH4, NO, and N2O fluxes from tropical savannah soils. J Geophys Res 99(D8):16429–16434Google Scholar
  224. Sanhueza E, Donoso L (2006) Methane emission from tropical savanna Trachypogon sp. Grasses. Atmos Chem Phys 6:5315–5319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Schills RLM, Verhagen A, Aarts HFM, Kuikman PJ, Šebek LB (2006) Effect of improved nitrogen management on greenhouse gas emissions from intensive systems in The Netherlands. Global Change Biol 12:382–391Google Scholar
  226. Schnell S, King GM (1995) Stability of methane oxidation capacity to variations in methane and nutrient concentrations. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 17:285–294Google Scholar
  227. Schnell S, King GM (1996) Responses of methanotrophic activity in soils and cultures to water stress. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:3203–3209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Segers R (1998) Methane production and methane consumption, a review of processes underlying wetland methane fluxes. Biogeochem 41:23–51Google Scholar
  229. Seghers D, Top EM, Reheul D, Bulcke R, Boeckx P, Verstraete W, Siciliano SD (2003) Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on activity and structure of the methanotrophic community in agricultural soils. Environ Microbiol 5:867–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Sherlock RR, Sommers SG, Khan RZ, Wood CW, Guertal EA, Freney JR, Dawson CO, Cameron KC (2002) Ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide emission from pig slurry applied to a pasture in New Zealand. J Environ Qual 31:1491–1501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Singh BP, Allen DE, Mendham D, Wang WJ, Cowie A, Baldock J, Dalal RC, Raison RJ (2007) Understanding the drivers of N2O and CH4 fluxes during the transition from pasture to plantation forests. Non-CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes in Australian–New Zealand landscapes, Research Forum, 15–16 May 2007, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  232. Singh JS, Raghubanshi AS, Reddy VS, Singh S, Kashyap AK (1998) Methane flux from irrigated paddy and dryland rice fields, and from seasonally dry tropical forest and savanna soils of India. Soil Biol Biochem 30:135–139Google Scholar
  233. Smialek J, Bouchard V, Lippmann B, Quigley M, Granata T, Martin J, Brown L (2006) Effect of a woody (Salix nigra) and an herbaceous (Juncus effusus) macrophyte species on methane dynamics and denitrification. Wetlands 26:509–517Google Scholar
  234. Smith KA, Ball T, Conen F, Dobbie KE, Massheder J, Rey A (2003) Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere, interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes. Eur J Soil Sci 54:779–791Google Scholar
  235. Smith KA, Dobbie KE, Ball BC, Bakken LR, Sitaula BK, Hansen S, Brumme R, Borken W, Christensen S, Prieme A, Fowler D, MacDonald JA, Skiba U, Klemedtsson L, Kasimir-Klemedtsson A, Degorska A, Orlanski P (2000) Oxidation of atmospheric methane in Northern European soils, comparison with other ecosystems, and uncertainties in the global terrestrial sink. Global Change Biol 6:791–803Google Scholar
  236. Sovik AK, Augustin J, Heikkinen K, Huttunen JT, Necki JM, Karjalainen SM, Klove B, Liikanen A, Mander U, Puustinen M, Teiter S, Wachniew P (2006) Emission of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane from constructed wetlands in Europe. Journal Env Qual 35:2360–2373Google Scholar
  237. Stadmark J, Leonardson L (2005) Emissions of greenhouse gases from ponds constructed for nitrogen removal. Ecol Engin 25:542–551Google Scholar
  238. Steudler PA, Bowden RD, Melillo JM, Aber JD (1989) Influence of nitrogen fertilization on methane uptake in temperate forest soils. Nature 341:314–316Google Scholar
  239. Steudler PA, Melillo JM, Feigl BJ, Neill C, Piccolo MC, Cerri CC (1996) Consequence of forest-to-pasture conversion on CH4 fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. J Geophys Res D, Atmospheres 101:18547–18554Google Scholar
  240. Striegl RG, McConnaughey TA, Thorstenson DC, Weeks EP, Woodward JC (1992) Consumption of atmospheric methane by desert soils. Nature 357:145–147Google Scholar
  241. Sugimoto A, Fujita N (1997) Characteristics of methane emission from different vegetations on a wetland. Tellus, Series B, Chem Phys Meteorol 49:382–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Sugimoto A, Inoue T, Tayasu I, Miller L, Takeichi S, Abe T (1998) Methane and hydrogen production in a termite-symbiont system. Ecol Res 13:241–257Google Scholar
  243. Suwanwaree P, Robertson GP (2005) Methane oxidation in forest, successional, and no-till agricultural ecosystems, effects of nitrogen and soil disturbance. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69:1722–1729Google Scholar
  244. Tate KR, Ross DJ, Scott NA, Rodda NJ, Townsend JA, Arnold GC (2006) Post-harvest patterns of carbon dioxide production, methane uptake and nitrous oxide production in a Pinus radiata D. Don plantation. Forest Ecol Manage 228:40–50Google Scholar
  245. Teepe R, Brumme R, Beese F, Ludwig B (2004) Nitrous oxide emission and methane consumption following compaction of forest soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:605–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Teh YA, Silver WL, Conrad ME (2005) Oxygen effects on methane production and oxidation in humid tropical forest soils. Global Change Biol 11:1283–1297Google Scholar
  247. Templeton AS, Chu KH, Alvarez-Cohen L, Conrad ME (2006) Variable carbon isotope fractionation expressed by aerobic CH4-oxidizing bacteria. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:1739–1752Google Scholar
  248. Tyler SC, Crill PM, Brailsford GW (1994) 13C/12C fractionation of methane during oxidation in a temperate forested soil. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:1625–1633Google Scholar
  249. Uz I, Rasche ME, Townsend T, Ogram AV, Lindner AS (2003) Characterization of methanogenic and methanotrophic assemblages in landfill samples. Proceedings Royal Soc London – Biol Sci 270:202–205Google Scholar
  250. Valentine DL, Chidthaisong A, Rice A, Reeburgh WS, Tyler SC (2004) Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation by moderately thermophilic methanogens. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:1571–1590Google Scholar
  251. Valentine DW, Holland EA, Schimel DS (1994) Ecosystem and physiological controls over methane production in a northern wetland. J Geophys Res 99:1563–1571Google Scholar
  252. Van Den Pol-Van Dasselaar A, Van Beusichem ML, Oenema O (1999) Effects of nitrogen input and grazing on methane fluxes of extensively and intensively managed grasslands in The Netherlands. Biol Fert Soils 29:24–30Google Scholar
  253. Van Der Weerden TJ, Sherlock RR, Williams PH, Cameron KC (1999) Nitrous oxide emissions and methane oxidation by soil following cultivation of two different leguminous pastures. Biol Fert Soils 30:52–60Google Scholar
  254. Van Hulzen JB, Segers R, Van Bodegom PM, Leffelaar PA (1999) Temperature effects on soil methane production, an explanation for observed variability. Soil Biol Biochem 31:1919–1929Google Scholar
  255. Vann CD, Megonigal JP (2003) Elevated CO2 and water depth regulation of methane emissions, comparison of woody and non-woody wetland plant species. Biogeochem 63:117–134Google Scholar
  256. Veldkamp E, Weitz AM, Keller M (2001) Management effects on methane fluxes in humid tropical pasture soils. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1493–1499Google Scholar
  257. Verchot LV, Davidson EA, Cattanio JH, Ackerman IL (2000) Land-use change and biogeochemical controls of methane fluxes in soils of Eastern Amazonia. Ecosys 3:41–56Google Scholar
  258. Von Arnold K, Nilsson M, Hånell B, Weslien P, Klemedtsson L (2005) Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained organic soils in deciduous forests. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1059–1071Google Scholar
  259. Wagner D, Pfeiffer EM (1997) Two temperature optima of methane production in a typical soil of the Elbe river marshland. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 22:145–153Google Scholar
  260. Wagner-Riddle C, Park KH, Thurtell GW (2006) A micrometeorological mass balance approach for greenhouse gas flux measurements from stored animal manure. Agric Forest Meteorol 136:175–187Google Scholar
  261. Wang B, Adachi K (2000) Differences among rice cultivars in root exudation, methane oxidation, and populations of methanogenic and methanotrophic bacteria in relation to methane emission. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 58:349–356Google Scholar
  262. Wang ZP, Ineson P (2003) Methane oxidation in a temperate coniferous forest soil, effects of inorganic N. Soil Biol Biochem 35:427–433Google Scholar
  263. Wassmann R, Neue HU, Ladha JK, Aulakh MS (2004) Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice-wheat cropping systems in Asia. Environ Develop Sus 6:65–90Google Scholar
  264. Wassmann R, Aulakh MS, Lantin RS, Rennenberg H, Aduna JB (2002) Methane emission patterns from rice fields planted to several rice cultivars for nine seasons. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 64:111–124Google Scholar
  265. Wassmann R, Neue HU, Lantin RS, Makarim K, Chareonsilp N, Buendia LV, Rennenberg H (2000) Characterization of methane emissions from rice fields in Asia. II differences among irrigated, rainfed, and deepwater rice. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 58:13–22Google Scholar
  266. Weier KL (1996) Trace gas emissions from a trash blanketed sugarcane field in tropical Australia. In: Wilson JR, Hogarth DM, Campbell JA, Garside AL (eds) Sugarcane, research towards efficient and sustainable production. CSIRO Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Brisbane, Australia, pp 271–272Google Scholar
  267. Weier KL (1998) Sugarcane fields, Sources or sinks for greenhouse gas emissions? Aus J Agric Res 49:1–9Google Scholar
  268. Weier KL (1999) N2O and CH4 emission and CH4 consumption in a sugarcane soil after variation in nitrogen and water application. Soil Biol Biochem 31:1931–1941Google Scholar
  269. Weiske A, Benckiser G, Ottow JCG (2001) Effect of the new nitrification inhibitor DMPP in comparison to DCD on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and methane (CH4) oxidation during 3 years of repeated applications in field experiments. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 60:57–64Google Scholar
  270. Weitz AM, Veldkamp E, Keller M, Neff J, Crill PM (1998) Nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane fluxes from soils following clearing and burning of tropical secondary forest. J Geophys Res D, Atmospheres 103(D21):28047–28058Google Scholar
  271. Werle P, Slemr F, Maurer K, Kormann R, Mücke R, Jänker B (2002) Near- and mid-infrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis. Optics Lasers Engineering 37:101–114Google Scholar
  272. Werner C, Kiese R, Butterbach-Bahl K (2007) Soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 and controlling environmental factors for tropical rain forest sites in western Kenya. J Geophys Res 112:1–15Google Scholar
  273. Werner C, Zheng X, Tang J, Xie B, Liu C, Kiese R, Butterbach-Bahl K (2006) N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions from seasonal tropical rainforests and a rubber plantation in Southwest China. Plant Soil 289:335–353Google Scholar
  274. Westermann P (1993) Temperature regulation of methanogenesis in wetlands. Chemosphere 26:321–328Google Scholar
  275. Whalen SC (2005) Biogeochemistry of methane exchange between natural wetlands and the atmosphere. Environ Engineering Sci 22:73–94Google Scholar
  276. Whalen SC, Reeburgh WS (2000) Methane oxidation, production, and emission at contrasting sites in a Boreal bog. Geomicrobiol J 17:237–251Google Scholar
  277. Whalen SC, Reeburgh WS, Barber VA (1992) Oxidation of methane in boreal forest soils, a comparison of seven measures. Biogeochem 16:181–211Google Scholar
  278. Whiticar MJ (1999) Carbon and hydrogen isotope systematics of bacterial formation and oxidation of methane. Chem Geol 161:291–314Google Scholar
  279. Whiticar MJ, Faber E (1986) Methane oxidation in sediment and water column environments – isotopic evidence. Org Geochem 10:759–768Google Scholar
  280. Whiting GJ, Chanton JP (1993) Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands. Nature 364:794–795Google Scholar
  281. Xu Z, Zheng X, Wang Y, Han S, Huang Y, Zhu J, Butterbach-Bahl K (2004) Effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on CH4 emissions from paddy rice fields. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 18:GB3009, 1–9Google Scholar
  282. Yagi K, Minami K (1990) Effect of organic matter applications on methane emission from some Japanese paddy fields. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 36:599–610Google Scholar
  283. Yagi K, Tsuruta H, Minami K (1997) Possible options for mitigating methane emission from rice cultivation. Soil-source and sink of greenhouse gases. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 49:213–220Google Scholar
  284. Yamulki S, Jarvis SC (2002) Short-term effects of tillage and compaction on nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from grassland. Biol Fert Soils 36:224–231Google Scholar
  285. Yan X, Yagi K, Akiyama H, Akimoto H (2005) Statistical analysis of the major variables controlling methane emission from rice fields. Global Change Biol 11:1131–1141Google Scholar
  286. Yavitt JB, Williams CJ, Wieder RK (2005) Soil chemistry versus environmental controls on production of CH4 and CO2 in northern peatlands. Eur J Soil Sci 56:169–178Google Scholar
  287. Zheng X, Zhou Z, Wang Y, Zhu J, Wang Y, Yue J, Shi Y, Kobayashi K, Inubushi K, Huang Y, Han S, Xu Z, Xie B, Butterbach-Bahl K, Yang L (2006) Nitrogen-regulated effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on methane emissions from paddy rice fields. Global Change Biol 12:1717–1732Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Dalal
    • 1
  • D. E. Allen
    • 1
  • S. J. Livesley
    • 2
  • G. Richards
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Natural Resources and WaterNatural Resource SciencesIndooroopillyAustralia
  2. 2.School of Forest and Ecosystem ScienceThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of the Environment and Water Resources, Fenner School of Environment and SocietyAustralian Greenhouse OfficeCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations