Genome-wide analysis of the invertase gene family from maize
The recent release of the maize genome (AGPv4) contains annotation errors of invertase genes and therefore the enzymes are bestly curated manually at the protein level in a comprehensible fashion
The synthesis, transport and degradation of sucrose are determining factors for biomass allocation and yield of crop plants. Invertase (INV) is a key enzyme of carbon metabolism in both source and sink tissues. Current releases of the maize genome correctly annotates only two vacuolar invertases (ivr1 and ivr2) and four cell wall invertases (incw1, incw2 (mn1), incw3, and incw4). Our comprehensive survey identified 21 INV isogenes for which we propose a standard nomenclature grouped phylogenetically by amino acid similarity: three vacuolar (INVVR), eight cell wall (INVCW), and ten alkaline/neutral (INVAN) isogenes which form separate dendogram branches due to distinct molecular features. The acidic enzymes were curated for the presence of the DPN tripeptide which is coded by one of the smallest exons reported in plants. Particular attention was placed on the molecular role of INV in vascular tissues such as the nodes, internodes, leaf sheath, husk leaves and roots. We report the expression profile of most members of the maize INV family in nine tissues in two developmental stages, R1 and R3. INVCW7, INVVR2, INVAN8, INVAN9, INVAN10, and INVAN3 displayed the highest absolute expressions in most tissues. INVVR3, INVCW5, INVCW8, and INVAN1 showed low mRNA levels. Expressions of most INVs were repressed from stage R1 to R3, except for INVCW7 which increased significantly in all tissues after flowering. The mRNA levels of INVCW7 in the vegetative stem correlated with a higher transport rate of assimilates from leaves to the cob which led to starch accumulation and growth of the female reproductive organs.
KeywordsBeta-fructosidase Corn Hydrolase Non-structural carbohydrates paralogues Sucrase Zea mays
Reproductive stage 1
Reproductive stage 3
We thank Carolyn Smith from Peace Corps Response for proofreading the manuscript. This work was supported by grants from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT México) to SJC CLG, JAMS, and ATF. We acknowledge support from the National Laboratory PlanTECC, Problemas Nacionales and Infraestructura. We further acknowledge initial funding grants by SAGARPA through CIMMYT and the MasAgro initiative. We thank Dr. Andres Estrada Luna for technical support in the lab and the greenhouse. We also thank Dr. Luz Casados for her help in designing an optimized set of primers for qRT-PCR.
ATF and SJC concieved and designed the research. SJC carried out the experiments and performed the bioinformatic surveys. SJC and ST carried out the field trials with maize. SJC, CLG and NCMS performed greenhouse experiments. SJC, CLG, NCMS and JAMS performed qRT-PCR and prepared figures. SJC and ATF interpreted the results. ST critically reviewed the manuscript. ATF and SJC wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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