Mapping and comparative proteomic analysis of the starch biosynthetic pathway in rice by 2D PAGE/MS
Our results not only provide a comprehensive overview of the starch biosynthetic pathway in the developing endosperm but also reveal some important protein markers that regulate the synthesis of starch.
In human diets, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important source of starch, a substantial amount of which is accumulated in developing endosperm. A better understanding of the complicated pathways involved in starch biosynthesis is needed to improve the yield and quality of rice and other cereal crops through breeding. One pure line rice mutant, SA0419, was induced from a wild-type rice, TNG67, by sodium azide mutagenesis; therefore, TNG67 and SA0419 share the same genetic background. SA0419 is, however, a unique glutinous rice with a lower amylose content (8%) than that of TNG67 (20%), and the grains of SA0419 develop earlier and faster than those of TNG67. In this study, we used a comparative proteomic analysis to identify the differentially expressed proteins that may explain the differences in starch biosynthesis and the characteristics of TNG67 and SA0419. A gel-based proteomic approach was applied to profile the expressed proteome in the developing endosperm of these two rice varieties by nano-LC/MS/MS. Several over-expressed proteins were found in SA0419, such as plastidial ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), pyrophosphate–fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), starch branching enzymes (SBE) and starch debranching enzyme (SDBE), with those proteins mainly being involved in the pathways of starch metabolism and PPDK-mediated gluconeogenesis. Those over-expressed enzymes may contribute to the relatively early development, similar starch accumulation and rapid grain filling of SA0419 as compared with TNG67. This study provides a detailed biochemical description of starch biosynthesis and related information regarding a unique starch mutant that may assist future research efforts to improve the yield and quality of grain and starch in rice through breeding.
KeywordsComparative proteomics Rice Endosperm 2-DE Starch biosynthesis
The study was funded by a Grant (#MOST-102-2113-M-005-001-MY3) from the Ministry of Science and Technology, R.O.C.
Conceptualization: C-SW, C-CL; data curation: T-SC, C-WL; formal analysis: T-SC, C-WL, AZW, M-WC, C-SW and C-CL; funding acquisition: C-CL; investigation: T-SC, C-WL, Y-LL, C-YL, AZW, M-WC, C-SW and C-CL; methodology: T-SC, C-WL, AZW, C-SW and C-C; project administration: C-SW, C-CL; resources: T-SC, C-WL, C-SW, C-CL; supervision: C-SW, C-CL; validation: T-SC, Y-LL, C-YL, C-SW, C-CL; visualization: T-SC, C-WL, and C-CL; writing (original draft preparation): T-SC, C-WL and C-CL; writing (review and editing): T-SC, C-SW and C-CL. All authors made substantive intellectual contributions to the present study and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest.
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