Comparison of gene expression profiles and responses to zinc chloride among inter- and intraspecific hybrids with growth abnormalities in wheat and its relatives
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Hybrid necrosis is a well-known reproductive isolation mechanism in plant species, and an autoimmune response is generally considered to trigger hybrid necrosis through epistatic interaction between disease resistance-related genes in hybrids. In common wheat, the complementary Ne1 and Ne2 genes control hybrid necrosis, defined as type I necrosis. Two other types of hybrid necrosis (type II and type III) have been observed in interspecific hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii. Another type of hybrid necrosis, defined here as type IV necrosis, has been reported in F1 hybrids between Triticum urartu and some accessions of Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides. In types I, III and IV, cell death occurs gradually starting in older tissues, whereas type II necrosis symptoms occur only under low temperature. To compare comprehensive gene expression patterns of hybrids showing growth abnormalities, transcriptome analysis of type I and type IV necrosis was performed using a wheat 38k oligo-DNA microarray. Defense-related genes including many WRKY transcription factor genes were dramatically up-regulated in plants showing type I and type IV necrosis, similarly to other known hybrid abnormalities, suggesting an association with an autoimmune response. Reactive oxygen species generation and necrotic cell death were effectively inhibited by ZnCl2 treatment in types I, III and IV necrosis, suggesting a significant association of Ca2+ influx in upstream signaling of necrotic cell death in wheat hybrid necrosis.
KeywordsCalcium influx Microarray Postzygotic barrier Programmed cell death Reactive oxygen species Wheat
We thank emeritus professor Dr. Koichiro Tsunewaki for supplying seeds of NILs, Ne1-S615 and Ne2-S615. We are grateful to Professor Dr. Hitoshi Nakayashiki for his useful suggestions. The diploid wheat seeds used in this study were supplied by the National BioResource Project-Wheat, Japan (www.nbrp.jp). This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) Nos. 21380005 and 25292008 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.
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