Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 62, Issue 4–5, pp 547–559 | Cite as

DEA1, a circadian- and cold-regulated tomato gene, protects yeast cells from freezing death

  • Philip D. Weyman
  • Zhiqiang Pan
  • Qin Feng
  • David G. Gilchrist
  • Richard M. BostockEmail author


Cold and freezing damage to plants can be mitigated by inducible factors during an acclimation period. DEA1 is a circadian-regulated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene with sequence similarity to EARLI1, an Arabidopsis thaliana gene that confers cold protection. To investigate whether DEA1 was responsive to environmental variables such as cold, cold-treated tomatoes were analyzed for DEA1 expression. DEA1 transcript accumulated in response to cold, and the rapidity of the cold-induced transcript accumulation was regulated by the circadian rhythm. To test whether DEA1 could protect cells from freezing damage, we transformed the yeast, Pichia pastoris, with an inducible DEA1 construct. Yeast cells transformed with the gene survived freezing at a significantly higher rate than control strains and a strain expressing the LacZ gene. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing or knocking down DEA1 transcript levels did not have an altered phenotype with respect to cold- or pathogen-susceptibility relative to control plants.


Circadian rhythm Cold stress Eight-cysteine motif Phytophthora infestans Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato 



Reactive oxygen species


Fatty acid desaturase


Zeitgeber time


Minimal methanol medium with histidine


Buffered glycerol complex medium


Eight cysteine motif


Long day


Short day


Constant darkness


Constant light


Arachidonic Acid


Post-transcriptional gene silencing


Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato


Light harvesting complex


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We thank Douglas Cook, Stacey Harmer, Steve Marek, and Miin-Huey Lee for helpful discussions about the data. We also thank Betsy Harbert, Dan Johnson, Jim Lincoln, and Barney Ward for their assistance with aspects of this study. This project was made possible by grant 96-35303-3238 from the USDA-NRI program, and the National Science Foundation Cooperative Agreement No. BIR−8920216 to CEPRAP.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip D. Weyman
    • 1
  • Zhiqiang Pan
    • 2
    • 3
  • Qin Feng
    • 1
  • David G. Gilchrist
    • 1
    • 2
  • Richard M. Bostock
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Center for Engineering Plants for Resistance Against PathogensUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.USDA, ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research UnitUniversity of MississippiUniversityUSA

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