Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 62, Issue 1–2, pp 29–42 | Cite as

Loss of NECROTIC SPOTTED LESIONS 1 associates with cell death and defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi
  • Takashi Kuromori
  • Takuji Wada
  • Takashi Hirayama
  • Asako Kamiya
  • Yuko Imura
  • Michiko Yasuda
  • Hideo Nakashita
  • Ken Shirasu
  • Kazuo ShinozakiEmail author


We isolated a lesion mimic mutant, n ecrotic s potted l esions 1 (nsl1), from Ds-tagged Arabidopsis thaliana accession No-0. The nsl1 mutant exhibits a growth retardation phenotype and develops spotted necrotic lesions on its rosette and cauline leaves. These phenotypes occur in the absence of pathogens indicating that nsl1 mutants may constitutively express defense responses. Consistent with this idea, nsl1 accumulates high levels of callose and autofluorescent phenolic compounds localized to the necrotic lesions. Furthermore RNA gel blot analysis revealed that genes associated with disease resistance activation are upregulated in the nsl1 mutants and these plants contain elevated levels of salicylic acid (SA). Crossing nsl1 with an SA deficient mutant, eds16-1, revealed that the nsl1 lesions and growth retardation are dependent upon SA. The nsl1 phenotypes are not suppressed under either the rar1-10 or sgt1b-1 genetic background. NSL1 encodes a novel 612aa protein which contains a membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain, which is conserved in bacteria, fungi, mammals and plants. The possible modes of action of NSL1 protein in negative regulation of cell death programs and defense responses are discussed.


Cell death Defense responses Salicylic acid MACPF domain 





cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel


Dissociation transposon


hydrogen peroxide


hypersensitive response


leucine rich repeat


membrane attack complex and perforin


salicylate hydroxylase

MAP kinase

mitogen-activated protein kinase


nucleotide binding site


programmed cell death


polymerase chain reaction

PR genes

pathogenesis-related genes

R gene

disease resistance gene


reactive oxygen species


salicylic acid


systemic acquired resistance


Toll/interleukin-1 receptor


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We are grateful to Dr. Jane Parker for distribution of Arabidopsis rar1-10 and sgt1b-1 seeds. We also thank Dr. Kiyotaka Okada for the organization of phenome analysis, Ms. Junko Ishida for microarray analysis, Ms. Hiroko Kobayashi for maintaining the green house. This work was supported in part by the Program for Promotion of Basic Research Activities for Innovative Biosciences (BRAIN) and the Special Coordination Fund of the Science and technology Agency to K.Shinozaki. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan (No. 14740449 to Y.N.). Y.N. was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Special Postdoctoral Researchers’ Program of RIKEN.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi
    • 1
    • 7
  • Takashi Kuromori
    • 2
  • Takuji Wada
    • 3
  • Takashi Hirayama
    • 2
    • 4
  • Asako Kamiya
    • 2
  • Yuko Imura
    • 2
  • Michiko Yasuda
    • 5
  • Hideo Nakashita
    • 5
  • Ken Shirasu
    • 3
    • 6
  • Kazuo Shinozaki
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Plant Molecular BiologyRIKEN Tsukuba InstituteIbarakiJapan
  2. 2.Genomic Sciences CenterRIKEN Yokohama InstituteYokohamaJapan
  3. 3.Plant Science CenterRIKEN Yokohama InstituteYokohamaJapan
  4. 4.International Graduate School of Arts and ScienceYokohama City Univ.YokohamaJapan
  5. 5.Plant Functions LaboratoryRIKEN InstituteSaitamaJapan
  6. 6.The Sainsbury LaboratoryJohn Innes CentreNorwichUK
  7. 7.The Sainsbury LaboratoryJohn Innes CentreNorwichUK

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