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Table 1 Herb species and the main types of natural compounds investigated during seasons in referencesa

From: Seasonal variations of natural products in European herbs

Climate classification Countries Families Species Types of natural products Research organs References
Mediterranean b Spain Asteraceae Artemisia absinthium L. Essential oil Aerial parts Llorens-Molina and Vacas (2015)
  Greece Asteraceae Artemisia arborescens (Vaill.) L. Essential oil Aerial parts Michelakis et al. (2016)
  France Asteraceae Calendula arvensis M.Bieb.c Essential oil Aerial parts Paolini et al. (2010)
  Italy Lamiaceae Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze Phenolic acids, Flavonoids Leaves Pacifico et al. (2015)
  Italy Apiaceae Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Phenylpropanoids, Flavonoids Leaves Scognamiglio et al. (2015)
   Asteraceae Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don    
   Lamiaceae Micromeria graeca (L.) Benth. ex Rchb.    
   Lamiaceae Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze    
   Lamiaceae Origanum vulgare L.    
   Lamiaceae Satureja montana L.    
   Lamiaceae Thymus longicaulis C.Presl    
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Asteraceae Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don Essential oil Aerial parts Talić et al. (2019)
  Italy Hypericaceae Hypericum perforatum L. subsp. Hypericins, Hyperforins, Flavonoids Aerial parts Filippini et al. (2010)
    perforatum    
    angustifolium (DC.) Gaudin    
    veronense (Schrank) Frolich    
  France Hypericaceae Hypericum perforatum L. Essential oil Aerial parts Schwob et al. (2004)
  Croatia Lamiaceae Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietsw. Essential oil Aerial parts Jerković et al. (2001b)
  Croatia Lamiaceae Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietsw. Essential oil Aerial parts Jerković et al. (2001a)
  Italy Rutaceae Ruta graveolens L. Phenolics Leaves Pacifico et al. (2016)
  Croatia Lamiaceae Satureja montana L., Satureja cuneifolia Ten. Essential oil Aerial parts Milos et al. (2001)
  Spain Scrophulariaceae Scrophularia scorodonia L. Harpagoside Leaves, Flowers, Steams Galíndez et al. (2000)
  Greece Lamiaceae Thymbra spicata L. Essential oil Leaves, Flowers Stefanaki et al. (2018)
  Italy Lamiaceae Thymus longicaulis C.Presl Phenolic acids, Flavonoids Leaves Galasso et al. (2014)
Temperate Germany Rosaceae Alchemilla vulgaris L. Ellagitannins, Flavonoids Leaves, Stalks Duckstein et al. (2012)
    Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm.    
  Denmark Plantaginaceae Antirrhinum majus L. Iridoids Aerial parts Drøhse Høgedal and Mølgaard (2000)
  The Netherlands Asteraceae Artemisia annua L.3 Artemisinin Leaves Wallaart et al. (2000)
  Denmark Brassicaceae Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. Glucosinolates Leaves Agerbirk et al. (2001)
  Serbia Lamiaceae Clinopodium pulegium (Rochel) Bräuchler Essential oil Aerial parts Slavkovska et al. (2013)
  Denmark Asteraceae Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. Lipophilic compounds, Phenolic acids Roots Thomsen et al. (2012)
  Serbia Gentianaceae Gentiana lutea L. Iridoids, Flavonoids Leaves, Flowers Menković et al. (2000)
  Hungary Lamiaceae Glechoma hederacea L. Phenolics Aerial parts Varga et al. (2016)
  Czech Republic Fabaceae Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Phenolics Roots Cheel et al. (2013)
  Slovakia Hypericaceae Hypericum maculatum Crantz Hypericins, Flavonoids Flower organs Mártonfi et al. (2006)
  Slovakia Hypericaceae Hypericum perforatum subsp. veronense (Schrank) H.Lindb Dianthrones, hyperforin, flavonoids Flowers Tekel'ová et al. (2000)
  Czech Republic Papaveraceae Macleaya microcarpa (Maxim.) Fedde Alkaloids Aerial parts, Underground parts Pěnčíková et al. (2011)
  Poland Fabaceae Medicago sativa L. Flavonoids Aerial parts Stochmal and Oleszek (2007)
  Poland Lamiaceae Melittis melissophyllum L. Phenolic acids Aerial parts Skrzypczak-Pietraszek and Pietraszek (2012)
  Poland Lamiaceae Melittis melissophyllum L. Flavonoids Leaves, Flowers Skrzypczak‐Pietraszek and Pietraszek (2014)
  Slovakia Lamiaceae Mentha × piperita L. Essential oil Not clear Grulova et al. (2015)
  The Netherlands Amaryllidaceae Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. cv. Carlton Alkaloids Bulbs, Leaves, Roots Lubbe et al. (2013)
  Poland Boraginaceae Pulmonaria officinalis L. Phenolic acids, Flavonoids Aerial parts Krzyżanowska-Kowalczyk et al. (2018)
  Serbiad Lamiaceae Satureja horvatii Šilić Essential oil Aerial parts Lakušić et al. (2011)
  Czech Republic Papaveraceae Stylophorum lasiocarpum (Oliv.) Fedde Alkaloids Aerial parts, Roots Šebrlová et al. (2015)
  Lithuania Lamiaceae Thymus L. species Phenolic acids, Flavonoids, Triterpenic acids Aerial parts Raudone et al. (2017)
    T. austriacus Bernh. ex Rchb.    
    T. × citriodorus Schweig. et Korte    
    T. longicaulis C.Presl    
    T. × oblongifolius Opiz    
    T. praecox Opiz subsp. arcticus (Durand) Jalas    
    T. pulegioides L.    
    T. sibthorpii Benth.    
    T. serpyllum L.    
Cold Russia Papaveraceae Corydalis bracteata (Steph. ex Willd.) Pers. Alkaloids Whole plants Khodorova et al. (2013)
  Finland Geraniaceae Geranium sylvaticum L. Tannins, Flavonoids, Phenolic acids Leaves, Roots, Steams, Flower organs Tuominen and Salminen (2017)
  1. aAll the binomial names were checked and revised according to World Flora Online (http://www.worldfloraonline.org/), in a few some cases original names used in the papers were kept (indicated in the text)
  2. bClimate classification was based on the climate map from the European Environment Agency (Fig. 1)
  3. cAnnual herbs, others are perennial herbs
  4. dSamples collected in mostly Serbia (Temperate climate area) and Montenegro (Mediterranean climate area)