Phytochemistry Reviews

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 989–1007 | Cite as

Phytochemical biopesticides: some recent developments

  • Suresh Walia
  • Supradip Saha
  • Vandana Tripathi
  • K. K. Sharma


Synthetic pesticides in general, are highly toxic, persistent and their harmful residues contaminate crops, food commodities and pollute soils and groundwater. They adversely affect non-target organisms like pollinators, fish, birds, animals, and their excessive use results in increased resistance in pests. Phytochemical biopesticides on the other hand are less toxic, least persistent, environment friendly and safe to humans and non target organisms. Several phytochemical biopesticides like azadirachtin, nicotine, pyrethrins, rotenone, veratrum, annonins, rocaglamides, isobutylamides etc. have been successfully commercilalized in the past. In this review pesticidal products based on Madhuca indica (Mahua), Sapindus mukorossi (soapnut), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Pongamia glabra (karanja), Eupatorium adenophorum (Crofton weed), Tagetes erecta (marigold), Rheum emodi (Himalayan Rhubarb) and essential oil bearing plants have been discussed. Natural insecticide synergists derived from Anethum sowa and their semisynthetic derivatives have been used to prolong efficacy and counter resistance in insect pests.


Phytochemical biopesticides Botanical pesticides Essential oils Essential oil constituents Natural pest control chemicals 


  1. Abdel-Tawab HM (2016) Green pesticides: essential oils as biopesticides in insect-pest management. J Environ Sci Technol 9:354–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abou-Taleb HK, Mohamed MI, Shawir MS, Abdelgaleil SA (2016) Insecticidal properties of essential oils against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and their inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase and adenosine triphosphatases. Nat Prod Res 30(6):710–714. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1038999 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adekunle OK, Acharya R, Singh B (2007) Toxicity of pure compounds isolated from Tagetes minuta oil to Meloidogyne incognita. Australas Plant Dis Notes 2:101–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agarwal M, Walia S (2004) Pest control potential of phytochemicals derived from Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale. In: Dureja P, Saxena DB, Kumar J, Singh SB, Gopal M, Tanwar RS (eds) Pesticide environment and food security. SPS, New Delhi, pp 110–119Google Scholar
  5. Agarwal M, Walia S, Dhingra S (1999) Pest control properties of turmeric leaf oil against Spilosoma obliqua. Dysdercus koenigii and Tribolium castaneum. In: Proceedings of 2nd All India People’s Technology Congress, Calcutta, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  6. Agarwal SK, Singh SS, Verma S, Kumar S (2000) Antifungal activity of anthraquinone derivatives from Rheum emodi. J Ethnopharmacol 72:43–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Agarwal M, Walia S, Dhingra S (2001) Insect growth inhibition, antifeedant and antifungal activity of compounds isolated/derived from Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Pest Manag Sci 37:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahluwalia V, Sisodia R, Walia S, Sati OP, Kumar J, Kundu A (2014) Chemical analysis of essential oils of Eupatorium adenophorum and their antimicrobial, antioxidant and phytotoxic properties. J Pest Sci 87:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ajaiyeoba EO, Sama W, Essien EE, Olayemi JO, Ekundayo O, Walker TM, Setzer WN (2008) Larvicidal activity of turmerone-rich essential oils of Curcuma longa leaf and rhizome from Nigeria on Anopheles gambiae. Pharm Biol 46:279–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ajayi OE, Appel AG, Fadamiro HA (2014) Fumigation toxicity of essential oil monoterpenes to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). J Insects 2014. Article ID 917212. doi: 10.1155/2014/917212
  11. Almarie A, Mamata A, Rukunudina I (2016) Chemical composition and herbicidal effects of Melaleuca bracteata F. Muell. essential oil against some weedy species. Int J Sci Eng Res 7(1):507–512Google Scholar
  12. Andrés MF, González-Coloma A, Sanz J, Burillo J, Sainz P (2012) Nematicidal activity of essential oils: a review. Phytochem Rev 11:371–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Angelini LG, Carpanese G, Cioni PL, Morelli I, Macchia M, Flamini G (2003) Essential oils from Mediterranean lamiaceae as weed germination inhibitors. J Agric Food Chem 51(21):6158–6164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Apisariyakul A, Vanittanakom N, Buddhasukh D (1995) Antifungal activity of turmeric oil extracted from Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 49(3):163–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Arnason JT, Philogene BJR, Duval F, Berg CW, Iyengar S, Morand P (1988) Efficacy of formulation of the phototoxic insecticide alpha-terthienyl towards Aedes sp. Bioact Mol 7:305–314Google Scholar
  16. Arnason JT, Philogene BJR, Morand P, Imrie K, Iyengar S, Duval F, Soucy-Breau C, Scaiano JC, Werstiuk NH, Hasspieler B, Downe AER (1989) Naturally occurring and synthetic thiophenes as photoactivated insecticides. ACS Symp Ser 387:164–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ayvaz A, Karaborklu S, Sagdic O (2009) Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils against the eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Asian J Chem 2:596–604Google Scholar
  18. Ayvaz A, Sagdic O, Karaborklu S, Ozturk I (2010) Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects. J Insect Sci 10:21. doi: 10.1673/031.010.2101 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Babu KS, Srinivas PV, Praveen B, Kishore KH, Murthy US, Rao JM (2003) Antimicrobial constituents from the rhizome of Rheum emodi. Phytochemistry 62:203–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barbosa P, Lima AS, Vieira P, Dias LS, Tinoco MT, Barroso J, Pedro LG, Figueiredo AC, Mota M (2010) Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. J Nematol 42(1):8–16PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Barton AF, Dell B, Knight AR (2010) Herbicidal activity of cineole derivatives. J Agric Food Chem 58(18):10147–10155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baser KHC, Malyer H (1996) Essential oil of Tagetes minuta from Turkey. J Essent Oil Res 8:337–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Beg AZ, Ahmad I (2002) In vitro fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:317–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Biswas NP, Biswas AK (2006) Use of non-edible oils as grain protectant against rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L) and their subsequent effect on germination. Adv Plant-Sci 19(2):653–656Google Scholar
  25. Brentwood TN (2003) Herbicidal compositions containing plant essential oils and mixtures or blends thereof. US patent 6506707Google Scholar
  26. Bringi NV (1987) Non-traditional oil seeds and oils in India. Oxford and IBH Publishing, New Delhi, pp 143–166Google Scholar
  27. Campiglia E, Mancinelli R, Cavalieri A, Caporali F (2007) Use of essential oils of cinnamon, lavender and peppermint for weed control. Ital J Agron Riv Agron 2:171–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Casida JE, Quistad GB (eds) (1994) Pyrethrum flowers, production, chemistry, toxicology and uses. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  29. Cestari IM, Sarti SJ, Waib CM, Branco AC (2004) Evaluation of the potential insecticide activity of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil against the head lice Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Neotrop Entomol 33(6):805–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Champagne DE, Arnason JTh, Philogene BJR, Campbell G, McLachlan DG (1984) Photosensitization and feeding deterrence of Euxoa messoria (Lepidoptera: Noctuiidae) by alpha terthienyl, a naturally occurring thiophene from the Asteraceae. Experientia 40(6):577–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cheng SS, Liu JY, Tsai KH, Chen WJ, Chang ST (2004) Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances. J Agric Food Chem 52:4395–4400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Choi WS, Park BS, Ku SK, Lee SK (2002) Repellent activities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Culex pipiens. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 18(4):348–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Choi HY, Yang YC, Lee SH, Clark JM, Ahn YJ (2010) Efficacy of spray formulations containing binary mixtures of clove and eucalyptus oils against susceptible and pyrethroid/malathion-resistant head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol 47(3):387–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Choudhury G (2006) Synthesis and bioactivity of monoterpene oxime esters against phytopathogenic fungi and nematodes. Ph.D. thesis, Post Graduate School, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Choudhury G, Walia S, Kumar J, Kumar B, Parmar BS (2007) Synthesis and fungicidal activity of citral oxime esters against two phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. Pestic Res J 19(1):15–19Google Scholar
  36. Chowdhury H, Walia S, Saxena VS (2000) Isolation, characterization and insect growth inhibitory activity of major turmeric constituents and their derivatives against Schistocerca gregaria (F.) and Dysdercus koenigi (W). Pest Manag Sci 56:1086–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chowdhury H, Walia S, Dhingra S (2001) Bioefficacy of azadirachtin, turmeric oil and their mixture against Bihar hairy caterpillar (Spilosoma obliqua Walk.). Pestic Res J 13(2):165–173Google Scholar
  38. Clay DV, Dixon FL, Willoughby I (2005) Natural products as herbicides for tree establishment. Forestry 78:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Coats JR, Karr LL, Drewes CD (1991) Toxicity and neuatoxic effects of monoterpenoids in insect and earthworms. In: Hedin PA (ed) Naturally occurring pest bioregulators ACS Symposium Series 449. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 306–316Google Scholar
  40. Cockcroft A, Cosgrove JB, Wood RJ (1998) Comparative repellency of commercial formulation of deet, permethrin and citronellal against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, using a collagen membrane technique compared with human arm tests. Med Vet Entomol 12(3):289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Copping LG, Duke SO (2007) Natural products that have been used commercially as crop protection agents. Pest Manag Sci 63:524–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cornelius WW, Wycliffe W (2016) Tagetes (Tagetes minuta) Oils. In: Preedy VR (ed) Essential oils in food preservation, flavor and safety. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 791–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cornelius ML, Grace JK, Yates JR III (1997) Toxicity of monoterpenoids and other natural products to the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J Econ Entomol 90(2):320–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. da Silva FC, Chalfoun SM, de Siqueira VM, Botelho DMS, Lima N, Batista LR (2012) Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Rev Bras Farmacogn. doi: 10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000052 Google Scholar
  45. Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, Polissiou MG (2000) GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungi toxicity on Penicillium digitatum. J Agric Food Chem 48:2576–2581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, Polission MG (2003) The effectiveness of plant essential oils on the growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Crop Prot 22:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Damalas CA (2011) Potential uses of turmeric (Curcuma longa) products as alternative means of pest management in crop production. Plant Omics J 4(3):136–141Google Scholar
  48. Das D (2008) Colouration of wool and silk with Rheum emodi. Indian J Fibre Text Res 33:163–170Google Scholar
  49. deMello V, Prata MC, da Silva MR, Daemon E, da Silva LS, Guimarães Fdel G, de Mendonça AE, Folly E, Vilela FM, do Amaral LH, Cabral LM, do Amaral Mda P (2014) Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants. Parasitol Res 113(12): 4431–37Google Scholar
  50. Dev S, Koul O (eds) (1997) Insecticides of natural origin. Harwood Academic Publisheers, AmstrerdamGoogle Scholar
  51. Dimić G, Kocić-Tanackov S, Mojović L, Pejin J (2015) Antifungal activity of lemon essential oil, coriander and cinnamon extracts on foodborne molds in direct contact and the vapor phase. J Food Process Preserv 39:1778–1787. doi: 10.1111/jfpp.12410 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Downum KR, Towers GHN (1983) Analysis of thiophenes in the Tageteae (Asteraceae) by HPLC. J Nat Prod 46:98–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Downum KR, Keil PJ, Rodriguez E (1985) Distribution of acetylenic thiophenes in the Pectidinae. Biochem Syst Ecol 13:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dudai N, Poljakoff-Mayber A, Mayber AM, Putievsky E, Lerner HR (1999) Essential oils as allelochemicals and their potential use as bioherbicides. J Chem Ecol 25:1079–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dwivedi AK, Chaudhry M, Sarin JPS (1990) Standardization of a new spermicidal agent Sapindus saponin and its estimation in its formulation. Indian J Pharm Sci 52:165–167Google Scholar
  56. Ellis MD, Baxendale FP (1997) Toxicity of seven monoterpenoids to tracheal mites (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and their honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hosts when applied as fumigants. J Econ Entomol 90(5):1087–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Felšöciová S, Kačániová M, Horská E, Vukovič N, Hleba L, Petrová J, Rovná K, Stričík M, Hajduová Z (2015) Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia. Ann Agric Environ Med 22(1):38–42. doi: 10.5604/12321966.1141367 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fernandez L, Campbell B, Koivunen M, Marrone PG, Less HH (2009) A natural herbicide containing lemongrass essential oil. Patent number WO 2009049153 A2Google Scholar
  59. Garg S, Taluja V, Upadhyay M, Talwar GP (1993) Studies on contraceptive efficacy of Praneem polyherbal cream. Contraception 48:591–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Geyter ED, Geelen D, Smagghe G (2007a) First results on the insecticidal action of saponins. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 72:645–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Geyter ED, Lambert E, Geelen D, Smagghe G (2007b) Novel advances with plant saponins as natural insecticides to control pest insects. Pest Tech 1:96–105Google Scholar
  62. Gil A, Ghersab CM, Perelman S (2002) Root thiophenes in Tagetes minuta L. accessions from Argentina: genetic and environmental contribution to changes in concentration and composition. Biochem Syst Ecol 30:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gommers FJ, Bakker J, Smits L (1980) Effects of singlet oxygen generated by the nematicidal compound alfa-terthienyl from Tagetes on the nematode Aphelenchus avenae. Nematologica 26:369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gonzalez-Coloma A, Reina M, Diaz CE, Fraga BM, Santana-Meridas O (2013) Natural product-based biopesticides for insect control. In: Reedijk J (ed) Elsevier reference module in chemistry, molecular sciences and chemical engineering. Elsevier, Waltham. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-409547-2.02770-0 Google Scholar
  65. Green MM, Singer JM, Sutherland DJ, Hibben CR (1991) Tagetes minuta (marigold) toward Aedes aegypti. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7:282–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Gupta GP, Kundu SK, Sharma K (1997) Effect of RD-9 Repelin on growth and development of red cotton bug, Dysdercus koenigii. Indian J Entomol 59(1):54–58Google Scholar
  67. Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Chaudhuri I, Chaudhuri RK, Bose P, Bhattacharya S, Manikandan L, Patra S (2002) Antimicrobial activity of Eupatorium ayapana. Fitoterapia 73:168–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Güssregen B, Fuhr M, Nugroho BW, Wray V, Wittec L, Proksch P (1997) New insecticidal rocaglamide derivatives from flowers of Aglaia odorata. Z Naturforsch 52c:339–344Google Scholar
  69. Handa SK, Dewan RS (1974) Evaluation of dillapiole and dihydrodillapiole as synergists for pyrethrins in dust formulations. Pyreth Post 13:45–46Google Scholar
  70. Hierro I, Valero A, Perez P, Gonzalex P, Cabo MM, Navarro MC (2004) Action of different monoterpenic compounds against Anisakis simplex larvae. Phytomedicine 11:77–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hill N (2008) A novel plant-based synergist for pyrethrum and pyrethroids against urban public health pests. In: Proceedings of the sixth international conference on urban pests (Robinson WH, Bajomi D (eds), Printed by OOK-Press Kft., H-8200 Veszprém, Pápai út 37/a, Hungary)Google Scholar
  72. Hooks CRR, Wang KH, Ploeg A, McSorley R (2010) Using marigold (Tagetes spp.) as a cover crop to protect crops from plant-parasitic nematodes. Appl Soil Ecol 46(3):307–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Huang HC, Liao SC, Chang FR, Kuo YH, Wu YC (2003) Molluscicidal saponins from Sapindus mukorossi, inhibitory agents of Golden Apple snails Pomacea canaliculata. J Agric Food Chem 51:4916–4919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Huang HC, Wu MD, Tsai WJ, Liao SC, Liaw CC, Hsu LC et al (2008) Triterpenoid saponins from the fruits and galls of Sapindus mukorossi. Phytochemistry 69:1609–1616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hummelbrunner AL, Isman BMB (2001) Acute, sublethal, antifeedant and synergistic effects of monoterpenoid essential oil compounds on the tobacco cut worm (Lep, Noctuidae). J Agric Food Chem 49:715–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ibrahim MK, Tiwari AA, Habeeb SK, Khaja MA, Habibullah M (2006) Antimicrobial activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum emodi extracts against Hpylori: in vitro and in vivo studies. World J Gastroenterol 12(44):7136–7142PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Inazuka S (1983) Monoterpenoids as repellents against the German cockroach (Blattela germanica L). J Pestic Sci 8(3):293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Inouye S, Takizawa S, Yamaguchi H (2001) Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact. J Antimicrob Chemother 47(5):565–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ismail M, Iqbal Z, Ahmad B, Zakir S, Niaz U (2003) Biological and pharmacological properties of two indigenous medicinal plants Rheum emodi and Paeonia emodi. Pak J Biol Sci 6:984–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Isman MB (1999) Pesticides based on plant essential oils. Pestic Outlook 10:68–72Google Scholar
  81. Isman MB (2000) Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop Prot 19(8):603–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Isman MB (2006) Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annu Rev Entomol 51:45–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Isman MB (2016) Pesticides based on plant essential oils: phytochemical and practical implications. In: Medicinal and aromatic crops: production, phytochemistry and utilization, pp 13–26. doi: 10.1021/bk-2016-2018,ch002
  84. Isman MB, Machial CM (2006) Pesticides based on plant essential oils: from traditional practice to commercialization. In: Rai M, Carpinella MC (eds) Naturally occurring bioactive compounds. Elsevier BV, Amsterdam, pp 29–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jankasem M, Wuthi-udomlert M, Gritsanapan W (2013) Antidermatophytic properties of Ar-turmerone, turmeric oil, and Curcuma longa preparations. ISRN Dermatology 2013, Article ID 250597. doi: 10.1155/2013/250597
  86. Jefferies PR, Tora RF, Casida JE (1991) Ryanodol 3-pyridine-3-carboxylate: a novel ryanoid from Ryania insecticide. J Nat Prod 54:1147–1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jefferies PR, Tora RF, Brannigan E, Pessah I, Casida JE (1992a) Ryania insecticide: analysis and biological activity of 10 natural ryanoids. J Agric Food Chem 40:142–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Jefferies PR, Lam W, Tora RF, Casida JE (1992b) Ryania insecticide: structural assignment of four natural 8ax-hydroxy-10-eparyanoids. J Agric Food Chem 40:509–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jeon J-H, Ko H-R, Kim S-J, Lee J-K (2016) Chemical compositions and nematicidal activities of essential oils on Meloidogyne hapla (Nematoda: Tylenchida) under laboratory conditions. Korean J Pestic Sci 20(1):30–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jilani G, Su HCF (1983) Laboratary studies on several plant materials as insect repellants for protection of stored grains. J Econ Entomol 76:154–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jilani G, Saxena RC, Rueda BP (1998) Repellant and growth inhibiting effects of turmeric oil, sweetflag oil, and Margosan-O on red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Econ Entomol 81:1226–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jing L, Lei Z, Li L, Xie R, Xi W, Guan Y, Sumner LW, Zhou Z (2014) Antifungal activity of citrus essential oils. J Agric Food Chem 62(14):3011–3033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kalita B, Bora S, Sharma AK (2013) Plant essential oils as mosquito repellent—a review. Int J Res Dev Pharm Life Sci 3(1):741–747Google Scholar
  94. Kanda D, Sanehdeep Kaur S, Koul O (2016) Effect of keto-compounds from essential oils on the growth and reproductive performance of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Biopestic Int 12(2):119–125Google Scholar
  95. Karr LL, Coats JR (1988) Insecticidal properties of d-limonene. J Pestic Sci 13:2287–2290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kashkooli AB, Saharkhiz MJ (2014) Essential oil compositions and natural herbicide activity of four denaei thyme (Thymus daenensis. Celak) ecotypes. J Essent Oil Bear Plants 17(5):859–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Katekhaye SD, Kale MS, Laddha KS (2012) A simple and improved method for isolation of karanjin from Pongamia pinnata seed oil. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 3(1):131–134Google Scholar
  98. Kishore GK, Pande S (2004) Natural fungicides for management of phytopathogenic fungi. Annu Rev Plant Pathol 3:331–356Google Scholar
  99. Kishore GK, Pande S, Harish S (2007) Evaluation of essential oils and their components for broad-spectrum antifungal activity and control of late leaf spot and crown rot diseases in peanut. Plant Dis 91:375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Klepzig KD, Schlyter F (1999) Laboratory evaluation of plant derived antifeedants against the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Econ Entomol 92(3):650–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Klocke JA, Balandrin MF, Yamasaki RB (1989) Limonoids, phenolics and furano-coumarins as insect antifeedants, repellants and growth inhibitory components. In: Arnason JT, Morand P, Philogene BJR (eds) Insecticides of plant origin. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 136–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Koul O (1995) Acorus allelochemical: chemistry and bioefficacy against insects. In: Parmar BS, Walia S (eds) Pesticides, crop protection and environment. Oxford and IBH Publishing, New Delhi, pp 99–113Google Scholar
  103. Koul (2004) Insect antifeedants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Koul O, Walia S (2009) Comparing impacts of plant extracts and pure allelochemicals and implications for pest control. CAB Rev Perspect Agric Vet Sci Nutr Nat Resour 4:1–30Google Scholar
  105. Koul O, Smirle MJ, Isman MB (1990) Asarones from Acorus calamus L. oil, their effect on feeding behavior and dietary utilization in Peridroma saucia. J Chem Ecol 16:1911–1920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Koul O, Walia S, Dhaliwal GS (2008) Essential oils as green pesticides: potential and constraints. Biopestic Int 4:63–84Google Scholar
  107. Koul O, Singh R, Kaur B, Kanda D (2013) Comparative study on the behavioral response and acute toxicity of some essential oil compounds and their binary mixtures to larvae of Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera litura and Chilo partellus. Ind Crops Prod 49:428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Krenn L, Presser A, Pradhan R et al (2003) Sulfemodin 8-O-d-glucoside, a new sulfated anthraquinone glycoside, and antioxidant phenolic compounds from Rheum emodi. J Nat Prod 66(8):1107–1109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Krenn L, Pradhan R, Presser A, Reznicek G, Kopp B (2004) Anthrone C-glucosides from Rheum emodi. Chem Pharm Bull 52(4):391–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kumar V, Chandrashekar K, Sidhu OP (2006) Efficacy of karanjin and different extracts of Pongamia pinnata against selected insect pests. J Entomol Res 30:103–108Google Scholar
  111. Kumar V, Chandrashekar K, Sidhu OP (2007) Synergistic action of neem and karanj to aphids and mites. J Entomol Res 31(2):121–124Google Scholar
  112. Kumar A, Shukla R, Singh P, Prasad CS, Dubey NK (2008) Assessment of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil as a safe botanical preservative against post harvest fungal infestation of food commodities. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 9(4):575–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Kundu A, Saha S, Walia S, Shakil NA, Kumar J (2013a) Cadinene sesquiterpenes from Eupatorium adenophorum and their antifungal activity. J Environ Sci Hlth B 48:516–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kundu A, Saha S, Walia S, Ahluwalia V (2013b) Plant growth inhibitory terpenes from Eupatorium adenophorum leaves. J Appl Bot Food Quality. doi: 10.5073/JABFQ.2013.086.005 Google Scholar
  115. Kundu A, Saha S, Walia S, Ahluwalia V, Kaur C (2013c) Antioxidant potential of essential oil and cadinene sesquiterpenes of Eupatorium adenophorum. Toxicol Environ Chem 95(1):127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kurade NP, Jaitak V, Kaul VK, Sharma P (2010) Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of Lantana camara, atum Houstonianum and Eupatorium adenophorum. Pharm Biol 48:539–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lee S, Tsao R, Peterson C, Coats JR (1997) Insecticidal activity of monoterpenoids to western corn root worm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), two spotted spidermite (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Housefly (Diptera: Muscidae). J Econ Entomol 90:883–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lee HS, Shin WK, Song C, Cho KY, Ahn YJ (2001) Insecticidal activities of ar-turmerone identified in Curcuma longa rhizome against Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). J Asia Pac Entomol 4:181–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Li YC, Ji H, Li XH, Zhang HX, Li HT (2017) Isolation of nematicidal constituents from essential oil of Kaempferia galanga L rhizome and their activity against Heterodera avenae Wollenweber. Trop J Pharm Res 16(1):59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lis-Balchin M, Deans SG (1997) Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. J Appl Microbiol 82:759–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Liu SQ, Scott IM, Pelletier Y, Kramp K, Durst T, Sims SR, Arnason JT (2014a) Dillapiol: A pyrethrum synergist for control of the Colorado potato beetle. J Econ Entomol 107(2):797–805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Liu XC, Bai CQ, Liu QZ, Liu ZL (2014b) Evaluation of nematicidal activity of the essential oil of Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott rhizome and its major constituents against Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White). J Entomol Zool Stud 2(4):182–186Google Scholar
  123. Liu BY, Dong BT, Yuan XF, Kuang QR, Zhao QS, Yang M, Liu J, Zhao B (2016) Enrichment and separation of chlorogenic acid from the extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng by macroporous resin. J Chromatogr B 1008:58–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Liu B, Cao L, Zhang L, Yuan X, Zhao B (2017) Preparation, phytochemical investigation, and safety evaluation of chlorogenic acid products from Eupatorium adenophorum. Molecules 22:67. doi: 10.3390/molecules22010067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Loganathan J, Walia S, Dhingra S (2005) Efficacy of various extracts of Madhuca indica on feeding and development of Spodoptera litura F. Pesticide Res J 17(1):10–15Google Scholar
  126. López SB, López ML, Aragón LM, Tereschuk ML, Slanis AC, Feresin GE, Zygadlo JA, Tapia AA (2011) Composition and anti-insect activity of essential oils from Tagetes L. Species (Asteraceae, Helenieae) on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann and Triatoma infestans Klug. J Agric Food Chem 59:5286–5292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Majumdar D, Bhavesh P, Arora A, Soni D (2004) Potential use of karanjin (3-methoxy furano-2′,3′,7,8-flavone) as a nitrification inhibitor in different soil types. Arch Agron Soil Sci 50(4–5):455–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Mao L, Henderson G, Laine RA (2004) Germination of various weed species in response to vetiver oil and nootkatone. Weed Technol 18:236–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Marles RJ, Hudson JB, Graham EA, Breau CS, Morand P, Compadre RL, Compadre CM, Towers GHN, Arnason JT (1992) Structure–activity studies of photoactivated antiviral and cytotoxic thiophenes. Phytochem Phytobiol 56:479–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Marotti I, Marotti M, Piccaglia R, Nastri A, Grandi S, Dinelli G (2010) Thiophene occurrence in different Tagetes species: agricultural biomasses as sources of biocidal substances. J Sci Food Agric 90:1210–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Meher HC, Walia S, Mukerjee SK (1988) Effect of steroidal and triterpenic saponins on the mobility of juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita. Indian J Nematol 18:244–247Google Scholar
  132. Mikolajczak KL, Mclaughlin Jl, Rupprecht JK (1988) US patent 4721727, Chem. Abst., 106, 63044vGoogle Scholar
  133. Miresmailli S, Isman MB (2014) Botanical insecticides inspired by plant–herbivore chemical interactions. Trends Plant Sci 19(1):29–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Miyakado M, Nakayama I, Ohno N (1989) Insecticidal unsaturated isobutylamide from natural products to agrochemical leads. In: Arnson JT, Philogene BJR, Morand P (eds) Insecticides of plant origin. ACS symposium series vol 387, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 173–187Google Scholar
  135. Mohan M, Haider SZ, Andola HC, Purohit VK (2011) Essential oils as green pesticides for sustainable agriculture. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 100–106Google Scholar
  136. Mondal A (2007) Development and evaluation of karanj (Pongamia glabra Vent.) based coumarins as potential aphid and fungal antagonist. Ph.D. thesis, Post Graduate School, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  137. Mondal A, Walia S, Shrivastava C, Kumar B, Kumar J (2010) Synthesis and insecticidal activity of karanj ketone oxime and its ester derivatives against the mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi). Pestic Res J 22(1):39–43Google Scholar
  138. Montser BR, Carvajal M (1998) Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components. J Food Prot 61:616–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Mukerjee SK, Saxena VS, Tomar SS (1979) New methylenedioxyphenyl synergists for pyrethrins. J Agric Food Chem 27:1209–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Mukerjee SK, Walia S, Saxena VS (1982) New pyrethrum synergists from dihydrodillapiole and furapiole. Agric Biol Chem 46:1277–1283Google Scholar
  141. Nakahara K, Alzoreky NS, Yoshihashi T, Nguyen HTT, Trakoontivakorn G (2003) Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass). Jpn Agric Res Q 37(4):249–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Narasimha Murthy K, Soumya K, Srinivas C (2013) Antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) plant extracts against bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Int J Sci Res 4(1):2136–2141Google Scholar
  143. Naz S, Ilyas S, Jabeen S, Parveen Z (2011) Composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Asian J Chem 23:1639–1642Google Scholar
  144. Nguefack J, Leth V, Amvam Zollo PH, Mathur SB (2004) Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi. Int J Food Microbiol 94:329–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Nguefack J, Nguikwie SK, Fotio D, Dongmo B, Zollo PH, Amvam Leth V, Nkengfack AE, Poll L (2007) Fungicidal potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris to control Alternaria padwickii and Bipolaris oryzae, two seed-borne fungi of rice (Oryza Sativa L). J Essen Oil Res 19:581–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Ntalli NG, Ferrari F, Giannakou I, Menkissoglu-Spiroudi U (2010) Phytochemistry and nematicidal activity of the EOs from 8 greek lamiaceae aromatic plants and 13 terpene components. J Agric Food Chem 58:7856–7863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ntalli N, Ferrari F, Gianakou IO, Menkissoglu-Spiroudi U (2011) Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of terpenes against Meloidogyne incognita and the nematicidal activity of EOs from seven plants indigenous to Greece. Pest Manag Sci 67:341–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Oka Y, Nacar S, Putievsky E, Ravid U, Yaniv Z, Spiegel Y (2000) Nematicidal activity of EOs and their components against the root-knot nematode. Phytopathology 90:710–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Oyedela AO, Gbolade AA, Sosan MB, Adewoyin FB, Soyely OL, Orafidiya OO (2002) Formulation of an effective mosquito repellent topical product from lemon grass oil. Phytomedicine 9(3):259–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Pandey AK, Rai MK, Acharya D (2003) Chemical composition and antimycotic activity of the essential oils of corn mint (Mentha arvensis) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) against human pathogenic fungi. Pharm Biol 41:421–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Paranagama PA, Abeysekera KHT, Abeywickrama K, Nugaliyadde L (2003) Fungicidal and anti-aflatoxigenic effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (lemon grass) against Aspergillus flavus L. isolated from stored rice. Lett Appl Microbiol 37:86–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Park K, Sang-Chul Shin (2005) Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe). J Agric Food Chem 53(11):4388–4392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Park K, Sang-Gil L, Sang-Chul S, Ji-Doo P, Young-Joon A (2002) Larvicidal activity of isobutylamides identified in Piper nigrum fruits against three mosquito species. J Agric Food Chem 50:1866–1870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Park CG, Shin E, Junheon Kim J (2016) Insecticidal activities of essential oils, Gaultheria fragrantissima and Illicium verum, their components and analogs against Callosobruchus chinensis adults. J Asia-Pac Entomol 19(2):269–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Parmar BS, Tomar SS (1983) Review of research on insecticide synergists in India-retrospect and prospect. Int J Trop Agric 1:7–17Google Scholar
  156. Parmar BS, Walia S (2001) Prospects and problems of phytochemical pesticides. In: Koul O, Dhaliwal GS (eds) Phytochemical biopesticides. Harwood Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp 133–210Google Scholar
  157. Parmar BS, Sahrawat KL, Mukerjee SK (1976) Pongamia glabra, constituents and uses. J Sci Ind Res 35:608–611Google Scholar
  158. Paster N, Menasherou M, Ravid U, Juven B (1995) Antifungal activity of oregano and thyme essential oils applied as fumigants against fungi attacking stored grain. J Food Prot 58:81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Patel EK, Gupta A, Oswal RJ (2012) A review on: mosquito repellent methods. Int J Pharm Chem Biol Sci 2(3):310–317Google Scholar
  160. Pathak VP, Saini TR, Khanna RN (1983) Isopongachromene, a chromenoflavone from Pongamia glabra seeds. Phytochemistry 22:308–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Paul R (2009) Synthesis and pesticidal activity of acyloxyimino derivatives of naturally occurring fenchone and methyl ketones. Ph.D. thesis, Post Graduate School, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  162. Perich MJ, Wells C, Bertsch W, Tredway KE (1995) Isolation of the insecticidal components of Tagetes minuta (Compositae) against mosquito larvae and adults. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11:307–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Peterson CJ, Coats JR (2011) Catnip essential oil and its nepetalactone isomers as repellents for mosquitoes. In: Paluch and coats; recent developments in invertebrate repellents ACS symposium series. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  164. Phoofolo MW, Mabaleha S, Mekbib SB (2013) Laboratory assessment of insecticidal properties of Tagetes minuta crude extracts against Brevicoryne brassicae on cabbage. Int J Nematol Entomol 1(6):134–139Google Scholar
  165. Podolak I, Galanty A, Sobolewska D (2010) Saponins as cytotoxic agents: a review. Phytochem Rev 9(3):425–474PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Politi FA, Nascimento JD, da Silva AA, Moro IJ, Garcia ML, Guido RV, Pietro RC, Godinho AF, Furlan M (2017) Insecticidal activity of an essential oil of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) on common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. and molecular docking of major compounds at the catalytic site of ClAChE1. Parasitol Res 116(1): 415–424Google Scholar
  167. Pradhanang PM, Momol MT, Olson SM, Jones JB (2003) Effects of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum population density and bacterial wilt incidence in tomato. Plant Dis 87:423–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Pudasaini MP, Viaene N, Moens M (2006) Effect of marigold (Tagetes patula) on population dynamics of Pratylenchus penetrans in a field. Nematology 8(4):477–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Rahman SS, Rahman M, Begum SA, Khan MMR, Bhuiyan MH (2007) Investigation of Sapindus mukorossi extracts for repellency, insecticidal activity and plant growth regulatory effect. J Appl Sci Res 3:95–101Google Scholar
  170. Ramsewak RS, Erickson AJ, Nair MG (1999) Bioactive N-isobutylamides from the flower buds of Spilanthes acmella. Phytochemistry 51:729–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Ranasinghe L, Jayawardena B, Abeywickrama K (2002) Fungicidal activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr et L. M. Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana. Lett Appl Microbiol 35:208–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Ray DP, Walia S, Dureja P, Singh RP (2000) Composition and repellent activity of the essential oil of marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower. Indian Perfumer 44(4):267–270Google Scholar
  173. Ray DP, Dureja P, Walia S (2008) Evaluation of Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.): flower essential oil for antifeedant activity against Spodoptera litura F. Pestic Res J 20:10–12Google Scholar
  174. Razzaghi-Abyaneh MM, Shams-Ghahfarokhi MB, Rezaee K, Jaimand S, Alinezhad R, Saberi R, Yoshinari T (2009) Chemical composition and antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum carvi, Thymus vulgaris and Citrus aurantifolia essential oils. Food Control 20:1018–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Rehman H, Begum W, Anjum F, Tabasum H (2014) Rheum emodi (Rhubarb): a fascinating herb. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 3(2):89–94Google Scholar
  176. Rice PJ, Coats JR (1994) Insecticidal properties of several monoterpenoids to the housefly (Diptera: Muscidae), red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and southern corn root-worm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J Econ Entomol 87:1172–1179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Rodrıguez Talou J, Cascone O, Giulietti AM (1994) Content of thiophenes in transformed root cultures of Argentinian species of Tagetes. Planta Med 60:260–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Rokaya MB, Unzbergová ZM, Timsina B, Bhattarai KR (2012) Rheum australe D. Don: a review of its botany ethnobotany phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 141(3):761–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Rosell G, Quero C, Coll J, Guerrero A (2008) Biorational insecticides in pest management. J Pestic Sci 33:103–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Roy D, Sharma NN, Khanna RN (1977) Structure and synthesis of isopongaflavone, a new component of the seeds of Pongamia glabra. Indian J Chem 15:1138–1139Google Scholar
  181. Saha S, Walia S, Kumar J, Dhingra S, Parmar BS (2010a) Screening for feeding deterrent and insect growth regulatory activity of triterpenic saponins from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi. J Agric Food Chem 58(1):434–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Saha S, Walia S, Kumar J, Dhingra S, Parmar BS (2010b) Tri-terpenic saponins as regulator of plant growth. J Appl Bot Food Quality 83(2):189–195Google Scholar
  183. Saha S, Walia S, Kumar J, Parmar BS (2010c) Structure-biological activity relationships in triterpenic saponins: the relative activity of protobassic acid and its derivatives against plant pathogenic fungi. Pest Manag Sci 66(8):825–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Saha S, Walia S, Prasad D (2010d) Synergistic/potentiation interaction between nematostatic constituents from Azadirachta indica and phytochemicals from Madhuca indica and Sapindus mukorossi. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 43:357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Saha S, Walia S, Kundu A, Kumar B, Joshi D (2012) Antifungal acetylinic thiophenes from Tagetes minuta: potential biopesticide. J Appl Bot Food Quality 85(2):1–5Google Scholar
  186. Sakulku U, Nuchuchua O, Uawongyart N, Puttipipatkhachorn S, Soottitantawat A, Ruktanonchai U (2009) Characterization and mosquito repellent activity of citronella oil nanoemulsion. Int J Pharm 372(1–2):105–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Salinas-Sánchez DO, Aldana-Llanos L, Valdés-Estrada ME, Gutiérrez-Ochoa M, Valladares-Cisneros G, Evelyn Rodríguez-Flores E (2012) Insecticidal activity of Tagetes erecta extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Fla Entomol 95(2):428–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Sangwan NK, Verma BS, Verma KK, Dhindsa KS (1990) Nematicidal activity of some essential oils. Pestic Sci 28(3):331–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Santana-Meridas O, Andres FM, Sanz J, Gonzalez-Coloma A (2014) Valorization of essential oils from Moroccan aromatic plants. Nat Prod Commun 9(8):1109–1114Google Scholar
  190. Sasikumar JM, Doss AP, Doss A (2005) Antibacterial activity of Eupatorium glandulosum leaves. Fitoterapia 76:240–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Saxena D, Pal R, Dwivedi AK, Singh S (2004) Characterization of sapindosides in Sapindus mukorossi saponin (Reetha saponin) and quantitative determination of sapindoside B. J Sci Ind Res 63:181–186Google Scholar
  192. Scott PT, Pregelj L, Chen N, Hadler JS, Djordjevic MA, Gresshoff PM (2008) Pongamia pinnata: an untapped resource for the biofuels industry of the future. BioEnergy Res 1:2. doi: 10.1007/s12155-008-9003-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Shankarganesh K, Walia S, Dhingra S, Subramanyam B, Ramesh Babu S (2011) Effect of dihydrodillapiole on pyrethroid resistance associated esterase inhibition in an Indian population of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). Pestic Biochem Physiol 20:86–90Google Scholar
  194. Shinoda T, Nagao T, Nakayama M, Serizawa H, Koshioka M, Okabe H, Kawai A (2002) Identification of a triterpenoid saponins from a crucifer, Barbarea vulgaris, as a feeding deterrent to the diamond back moth, Plutella xylostella. J Chem Ecol 28(3):587–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Singh R, Kalidhar SB (2006) Evaluation of karanj (Pongamia pinnata Vent) compounds against Lepidopteran pests. Biopestic Int 2(2):153–159Google Scholar
  196. Singh D, Siddiqui MS, Sharma S (1989) Reproductive retardant and fumigant properties in essential oils against rice weevil in stored wheat. J Econ Entomol 82:727–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Singh SS, Pandey SS, Singh R, Aggarwal S (2005) Dihydroxyanthraquinone derivatives from the rhizome of Rheum emodi Wall. Indian J Chem 42B:1494–1496Google Scholar
  198. Singh R, Koul O, Rup PJ, Jindal J (2009) Toxicity of some essential oil constituents and their binary mixtures against Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Int J Tropical Insect Sci 29(2):93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Singh P, Krishna A, Kumar V, Krishna S, Singh K, Gupta M, Singh S (2016) Chemistry and biology of industrial crop Tagetes species: a review. J Essent Oil Res 28:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Soylu EM, Kose F (2015) Antifungal activities of essential oils against citrus black rot disease agent Alternaria alternata. J Essent Oil Bear Plants 18(4):894–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Sparg SG, Light ME, Staden J (2004) Biological activities and distribution of plant saponins. J Ethnopharmacol 94:219–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Su HCF, Robert H, Gilani G (1982) Isolation, purification and characterization of insect repellents from Curcuma longa L. J Agric Food Chem 30:290–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Subba B, Kandel RC (2012) Chemical composition and bioactivity of essential oil of Ageratina adenophora from Bhaktapur District of Nepal Central. J Nepal Chem Soc 30:78–86Google Scholar
  204. Suhagia BN, Rathod IS, Sindhu S (2011) Sapindus mukorossi (Areetha): an overview. Int J Pharm Sci Res. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.2(8).1905-1913 Google Scholar
  205. Tavares W, Akhtar Y, Gonçalves GLP, Zanuncio JC, Isman MB (2016) Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists. Sci Rep 6, Article number: 34093. doi: 10.1038/srep34093
  206. Tiwari A, Goswami P, Bisht BS, Chauhan A, Verma RS, Padalia RC (2016) Essential oil composition of African marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) harvested at different growth stages in foothills agroclimatic conditions of North India. Am J Essent Oils Nat Prod 4(3):04–07Google Scholar
  207. Tomar SS, Maheshwari ML, Mukerjee SK (1979) Synthesis and synergistic activity of dillapiole based pyrethrum synergists. J Agric Food Chem 27:547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Tripathi B (2012) Chemical profiling and antipest properties of Tagetes erecta, Rheum emodi and Curcuma longa extractives and their use in protective seed coats. Ph.D. thesis, Post Graduate School, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  209. Tripathi AK, Prajapati V, Aggarwal KK, Kumar S, Prajapti V, Kukreja AK, Dwivedi S, Singh AK (2000) Effects of volatile oil constituents of Mentha species against stored grain pests, Callosobrunchus maculatus and Tribolium castanum. J Med Arom Plant Sci 22(1B):549–556Google Scholar
  210. Tripathi AK, Prajanpati V, Aggarwal KK, Kumar S (2001a) Toxicity, feeding deterrence, and effect of activity of 1,8-cineole from Artemisia annua on progeny production of Tribolium castanaeum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Econ Entomol 94:979–983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Tripathi AK, Prajapati V, Aggarwal KK, Kumar S (2001b) Insecticidal and ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Anethum sowa kurz against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: bruchidae). Insect Sci Appl 21(1):61–66Google Scholar
  212. Tripathi AK, Prajapathi V, Verma N, Bhal JR, Bansal RP, Khanuja SPS, Kumar S (2002) Bioactivities of the leaf essential oils of Curcuma longa (Var.Ch.66) on three species of stored product beetles (Coleoptera). J Econ Entomol 95(1):183–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Tripathi AK, Prajapati V, Kumar S (2003) Bioactivity of l-carvone, d-carvone and dihydrocarvone towards three stored product beetles. J Econ Entomol 96(5):1594–1601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Tripathi AK, Upadhyay S, Bhuiyan M, Bhattacharya PR (2009) A review on prospects of essential oils as biopesticide in insect–pest management. J Pharmacogn Phytother 1(5):52–63Google Scholar
  215. Tripathi B, Bhatia R, Saha S, Walia S (2012a) Isolation, characterization and pest control properties of Curcuma longa (Var. Rajapuri) extractives and their nano-emulsions. In: International conference on interface between chemistry and environment (ICICE) 13–14th December 2012, University of Delhi, Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  216. Tripathi B, Bhatia R, Walia S, Kumar B (2012b) Chemical composition and evaluation of Tagetes erecta (Var. Pusa Narangi Genda) essential oil for its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Biopest Int 8(2):138–146Google Scholar
  217. Tripathi B, Bhatia R, Pandey A, Gaur J, Chawala G, Walia S, Choi EH, Attri P (2014) Potential antioxidant anthraquinones isolated from Rheum emodi showing nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita. J Chem Article ID 652526. doi: 10.1155/2014/652526
  218. Trongtokit Y, Rongsrivam Y, Komalamisra N, Apiwathnasorn C (2005) Comparative repellency of essential oils against mosquito bites. Phytother Res 19(4):303–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Tsao R, Zhou T (2000) Antifungal activity of monoterpenoids against post harvest pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola. J Essent Oil Res 12:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Tsuzuki JK, Svidzinski TIE, Shinobu CS, Silva LFA, Rodrigues-Filho E, Cortex DAG et al (2007) Antifungal activity of the extracts and saponins from Sapindus saponaria L. An Acad Bras Cienc 79:577–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Tworkoski T (2002) Herbicide effects of essential oils. Weed Sci 50:425–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Ujvary I (1999) Nicotine and other insecticidal alkaloids. In: Yamamoto I, Casida JE (eds) Nicotinoid insecticide and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Springer, Tokyo, pp 229–269Google Scholar
  223. Velasco-Negueruela A, Pérez-Alonsoa MJ, Pérez de Pazb PL, Pala-Paul J (2003) Analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of the essential oils from the aerial parts of Rutheopsis herbanica (Bolle) Hans & Kunk gathered in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands). J Chromatogr A 984:159–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Velázquez-Nuñez MJ, Avila-Sosa R, López-Malo EA (2013) Antifungal activity of orange (Citrus sinensis var. Valencia) peel essential oil applied by direct addition or vapor contact. Food Control 31(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Velluti A, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ, Turon C, Marin S (2004) Impact of essential oils on growth rate, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium graminearum under different temperature and water activity conditions in maize grain. J Appl Microbiol 96:716–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Vidyasagar PSPV, Walia S (1987) Effect of certain dillapiole derivatives on rice stem borer Scirpophage incertulas (Walker) eggs. Entomon 12(4):345–348Google Scholar
  227. Vincken JP, Heng L, Groot A et al (2007) Saponins, classification and occurence in the plant kingdom. Phytochemistry 68:275–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Vismaya EWS, Manjunath JR, Srinivas P, Sindhu Kanya TC (2010) Extraction and recovery of karanjin: a value addition to karanja (Pongamia pinnata) seed oil. Ind Crops Prod 32(2010):118–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Vohra S (2007) Chemical investigation and modification of compound(s) isolated from Pongamia glabra as potential nitrification inhibitors. Ph.D. thesis, Post Graduate School, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  230. Vohra S, Walia S, Azam A, Kumar J, Parmar BS (2005) Nitrification inhibitory activity of Pongamia glabra constituents karanjin and semi-synthetic derivatives. Book of abstracts, national symposium on biopesticides (April 20–21, 2005). Society of pesticide Science India IARI, New Delhi, p 66Google Scholar
  231. Walia S, Koul O (2008) Exploring plant biodiversity for botanical insecticides. In: Koul O, Dhaliwal GS, Koul VK (eds) Sustainable crop protection: biopesticide strategies. Kalyani Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  232. Walia S, Saxena VS, Mukerjee SK (1984) Cyclopropyl MDP compounds as new pyrethrum synergists. Agril Biol Chem 48:2675–2679Google Scholar
  233. Walia S, Saxena VS, Mukherjee SK (1985) Synthesis and synergistic activity of oxime ethers containing a benzo-1,3-dioxide group. J Agric Food Chem 33:308–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Walia S, Saha S, Parmar BS (2004) Liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of two plant based insecticide synergists dillapiole and dihydrodillapiole. J Chromatogr A 1047(2):229–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Walia S, Saha S, Rana VS (2014) Phytochemical pesticides. In: Singh D (ed) Advances in plant biopesticides. Springer, India, pp 295–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Waller GR (1999) Biologicaly active natural products. Recent advances in saponins used in foods, agriculture, and medicine. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 243–274Google Scholar
  237. Wang KH, Sipes BS, Schmitt DP (2001) Suppression of Rotylenchulus reniformis by Crotalaria juncea, Brassica napus, and Tagetes erecta. Nematropica 31:237–251Google Scholar
  238. Weaver DK, Wells CD, Dunkel FV, Bertsch W, Sing SE, Sriharan S (1994) Insecticidal activity of floral, foliar, and root extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) against adult mexican bean weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J Eecon Entomol 87:1718–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Weaver DK, Zettler JL, Wells CD, Baker JE, Bertsch W, Throne JE (1997) Toxicity of fractionated and degraded Mexican marigold floral extract to adult Sitophilus zeamais. J Econ Entomol 90:1678–1683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Wilson CL, Solar JM, Ghaouth A, Wisniewski ME (1997) Rapid evaluation of plant extracts and essential oils for antifungal activity in Botrytis cinerea. Plant Dis 81:204–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Wong KKY, Signal FA, Campion SH, Motion RL (2005) Citronella as an insect repellent in food packaging. J Agric Food Chem 53(11):4633–4636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Wuthi-Udomlert M, Grisanapan W, Luanratana O, Caichompoo W (2000) Antifungal activity of Curcuma longa grown in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 31(1):178–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Zambonelli A, D’Aulerjo AZ, Bianchi A, Albasini A (1996) Effects of essential oils on phyto pathogenic fungi in vitro. J Phytopathol 144:491–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Zanellato M, Masciarelli E, Casorri L, Boccia P, Sturchio E, Pezzella M, Cavalieri A, Caporali F (2009) The essential oils in agriculture as an alternative strategy to herbicides: a case study. Int J Environ Health 3:198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Zargar BA, Masoodi MH, Ahmed B, Ganie SA (2011) Phytoconstituents and therapeuticuses of Rheum emodi Wall. Ex Meissn. Food Chem 128(3):585–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Zaridah MZ, Nor Azah MA, Abu Said A, Mohd Farid ZP (2003) Larvicidal properties of citronellal and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils from two different localities. Trop Biomed 20(2):169–174Google Scholar
  247. Zhu JJ, Zeng XP, Berkebile D, Du HJ, Tong Y, Qian K (2009) Efficacy and safety of catnip (Nepeta cataria) as a novel filth fly repellent. Med Vet Entomol 23(3):209–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Agricultural ChemicalsICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations