Skip to main content

Exploiting the anti-inflammatory properties of olive (Olea europaea) in the sustainable production of functional food and neutraceuticals

Abstract

Olive oil is an important lipid source of the Mediterranean diet which has been associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases whereas olive pomace (OP), a natural by-product of olive oil production, has been found to contain micro constituents with antioxidant, antithrombotic and antiatherogenic activities. The evaluation of OP in order to produce sustainable functional food and neutraceuticals has been the subject of research over the last years. All recent data, focusing on the anti-inflammatory properties of olive oil derived from olive (Olea europaea) and OP along with the potential production of sustainable functional food and neutraceuticals, are presented in this review.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Aguilera CM, Mesa MD, Ramirez-Tortosa MC et al (2004) Sunflower oil does not protect against LDL oxidation as virgin olive oil does in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Clin Nutr 23:673–681

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ambrosio G, Oriente A, Napoli C et al (1994) Oxygen radicals inhibit human plasma acetylhydrolase, the enzyme that catabolizes platelet-activating factor. J Clin Invest 93:2408–2416

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Androulakis N, Durand H, Ninio E, Tsoukatos DC (2005) Molecular and mechanistic characterization of platelet-activating factor-like bioactivity produced upon LDL oxidation. J Lipid Res 46:1923–1932

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Antonopoulou S, Demopoulos CA (1997) On the Mediterranean diet. Int News Fats Oils Relat Mater 8:776–777

    Google Scholar 

  5. Antonopoulou S, Fragopoulou E, Karantonis HC, Mitsou E, Sitara M, Rementzis J, Mourelatos A, Ginis A, Phenekos C (2006) Effect of traditional Greek Mediterranean meals on platelet aggregation in normal subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Food 9:356–362

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Aronis P, Antonopoulou S, Karantonis HC et al (2007) Effect of fast-food Mediterranean-type diet on human plasma oxidation. J Med Food 10:511–520

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bautista AP, Spitzer JJ (1992) Platelet activating factor stimulates and primes the liver, Kupffer cells and neutrophils to release superoxide anion. Free Radic Res Commun 17:195–209

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Beauchamp GK, Keast RS, Morel D et al (2005) Phytochemistry: ibuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil. Nature 437:45–46

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bouchard-Mercier A, Paradis AM, Rudkowska I, Lemieux S, Couture P, Vohl MC (2013) Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study. Nutr J 12:24

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bussolino F, Camussi G (1995) Platelet-activating factor produced by endothelial cells. A molecule with autocrine and paracrine properties. Eur J Biochem 229:327–337

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bussolino F, Camussi G, Tetta C, Garbarino G, Bosia A, Baglioni C (1990) Selected cytokines promote the synthesis of platelet-activating factor in vascular endothelial cells: comparison between tumor necrosis factor alpha and beta and interleukin-1. J Lipid Mediat 2(Suppl):S15–S22

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Caesar R, Fak F, Backhed F (2010) Effects of gut microbiota on obesity and atherosclerosis via modulation of inflammation and lipid metabolism. J Intern Med 268:320–328

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Camargo A, Delgado-Lista J, Garcia-Rios A, Cruz-Teno C, Yubero-Serrano EM, Perez-Martinez P, Gutierrez-Mariscal FM, Lora-Aguilar P, Rodriguez-Cantalejo F, Fuentes-Jimenez F, Tinahones FJ, Malagon MM, Perez-Jimenez F, Lopez-Miranda J (2012) Expression of proinflammatory, proatherogenic genes is reduced by the Mediterranean diet in elderly people. Br J Nutr 108:500–508

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Cicerale S, Keast RSJ (2011) Oleocanthal a natural anti-inflammatory compound in extra virgin olive oil. Am J Commun Psychol 48:94–100

    Google Scholar 

  15. Cicerale S, Lucas LJ, Keast RSJ (2012) Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic activities in extra virgin olive oil. Curr Opin Biotechnol 23:129–135

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Covas MI, Nyyssonen K, Poulsen HE, Kaikkonen J, Zunft HJ, Kiesewetter H, Gaddi A, de la Torre R, Mursu J, Baumler H, Nascetti S, Salonen JT, Fito M, Virtanen J, Marrugat J (2006) The effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 145:333–341

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Demopoulos CA, Pinckard RN, Hanahan DJ (1979) Platelet-activating factor. Evidence for 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine as the active component (a new class of lipid chemical mediators). J Biol Chem 254:9355–9358

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Demopoulos CA, Karantonis HC, Antonopoulou S (2003) Platelet activating factor—a molecular link between atherosclerosis theories. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 105:705–716

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Dentan C, Lesnik P, Chapman MJ, Ninio E (1996) Phagocytic activation induces formation of platelet-activating factor in human monocyte-derived macrophages and in macrophage-derived foam cells. Relevance to the inflammatory reaction in atherogenesis. Eur J Biochem 236:48–55

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Detopoulou P, Nomikos T, Fragopoulou E, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C, Antonopoulou S (2009) Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) in leukocytes and body composition in healthy adults. Lipids Health Dis 8:19

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Drira R, Chen S, Sakamoto K (2011) Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells. Life Sci 89:708–716

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Esposito K, Kastorini CM, Panagiotakos DB, Giugliano D (2013) Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome: an updated systematic review. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 14:255–263

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Fabiani R, De BA, Rosignoli P, Servili M, Montedoro GF, Morozzi G (2002) Cancer chemoprevention by hydroxytyrosol isolated from virgin olive oil through G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Eur J Cancer Prev 11:351–358

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Farr SA, Price TO, Dominguez LJ, Motisi A, Saiano F, Niehoff ML, Morley JE, Banks WA, Ercal N, Barbagallo M (2012) Extra virgin olive oil improves learning and memory in SAMP8 mice. J Alzheimers Dis 28:81–92

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Feliste R, Perret B, Braquet P, Chap H (1989) Protective effect of BN 52021, a specific antagonist of platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) against diet-induced cholesteryl ester deposition in rabbit aorta. Atherosclerosis 78:151–158

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Fragopoulou E, Iatrou C, Antonopoulou S et al (2006) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) increase intracellular lipid accumulation by increasing both LDL and scavenger receptors in human mesangial cells. J Lab Clin Med 147:281–289

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Galanos DS, Kapoulas VM (1962) Isolation of polar lipids from triglyceride mixtures. J Lipid Res 3:134–137

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Galeone C, Talamini R, Levi F et al (2007) Fried foods, olive oil and colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol 18:36–39

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Giugliano D, Esposito K (2008) Mediterranean diet and metabolic diseases. Curr Opin Lipidol 19:63–68

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Esposito K (2006) The effects of diet on inflammation: emphasis on the metabolic syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol 48:677–685

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Golino P, Ambrosio G, Ragni M et al (1993) Short-term and long-term role of platelet activating factor as a mediator of in vivo platelet aggregation. Circulation 88:1205–1214

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Handley DA, Arbeeny CM, Lee ML et al (1984) Effect of platelet activating factor on endothelial permeability to plasma macromolecules. Immunopharmacology 8:137–142

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Harayama T, Shindou H, Ogasawara R, Suwabe A, Shimizu T (2008) Identification of a novel noninflammatory biosynthetic pathway of platelet-activating factor. J Biol Chem 283:11097–11106

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Heery JM, Kozak M, Stafforini DM et al (1995) Oxidatively modified LDL contains phospholipids with platelet-activating factor-like activity and stimulates the growth of smooth muscle cells. J Clin Invest 96:2322–2330

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Hodgkinson CP, Ye S (2011) Toll-like receptors, their ligands, and atherosclerosis. Sci World J 11:437–453

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Im SY, Han SJ, Ko HM, Choi JH, Chun SB, Lee DG, Ha TY, Lee HK (1997) Involvement of nuclear factor-kappa B in platelet-activating factor-mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression. Eur J Immunol 27:2800–2804

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Ishii S, Shimizu T (1999) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-related pathophysiology. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 44:1068–1074

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Jiang Y, Wen K, Zhou X et al (2008) Three-dimensional localization and quantification of PAF-induced gap formation in intact venular microvessels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295:898–906

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Karantonis HC, Antonopoulou S, Demopoulos CA (2002) Antithrombotic lipid minor constituents from vegetable oils. Comparison between olive oils and others. J Agric Food Chem 50:1150–1160

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Karantonis HC, Antonopoulou S, Perrea DN et al (2006a) In vivo antiatherogenic properties of olive oil and its constituent lipid classes in hyperlipidemic rabbits. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16:174–185

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Karantonis HC, Fragopoulou E, Antonopoulou S et al (2006b) Effect of fast-food Mediterranean-type diet on type 2 diabetics and healthy human subjects’ platelet aggregation. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 72:33–41

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Karantonis HC, Tsantila N, Stamatakis G et al (2008) Bioactive polar lipids in olive oil, pomace and waste byproducts. J Food Biochem 32:443–459

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Kawai T, Akira S (2010) The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors. Nat Immunol 11:373–384

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Keys A (1996) Mediterranean diet and public health: personal reflections. Am J Clin Nutr 61:1321–1323

    Google Scholar 

  45. Khalatbary AR (2013) Olive oil phenols and neuroprotection. Nutr Neurosci 16:243–249

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Kjeldsen-Kragh J (2003) Mediterranean diet intervention in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 62:193–195

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Konstantinidou V, Covas MI, Munoz-Aguayo D, Khymenets O, de la Torre R, Saez G, Tormos MC, Toledo E, Marti A, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Ruiz Mendez MV, Fito M (2010) In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial. FASEB J 24:2546–2557

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Koussissis SG, Semidalas CE, Antonopoulou S et al (1993) PAF antagonists in foods: isolation and identification of PAF in virgin olive oil. Rev Fr Corp Gras 40:323–327

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Kudolo GB, DeFronzo RA (1999) Urinary platelet-activating factor excretion is elevated in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 57:87–98

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Kuijpers TW, Hakkert BC, Hart MH, Roos D (1992) Neutrophil migration across monolayers of cytokine-prestimulated endothelial cells: a role for platelet-activating factor and IL-8. J Cell Biol 117:565–572

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. La VC (2009) Association between Mediterranean dietary patterns and cancer risk. Nutr Rev 67(Suppl 1):S126–S129

    Google Scholar 

  52. Lacasse C, Turcotte S, Gingras D, Stankova J, Rola-Pleszczynski M (1997) Platelet-activating factor stimulates interleukin-6 production by human endothelial cells and synergizes with tumor necrosis factor for enhanced production of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Inflammation 21:145–158

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Lefebvre JS, Marleau S, Milot V, Levesque T, Picard S, Flamand N, Borgeat P (2010) Toll-like receptor ligands induce polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration: key roles for leukotriene B4 and platelet-activating factor. FASEB J 24:637–647

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Liapikos TA, Antonopoulou S, Karabina SP et al (1994) Platelet-activating factor formation during oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein when PAF-acetylhydrolase has been inactivated. Biochim Biophys Acta 1212:353–360

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Lloberas N, Torras J, Herrero-Fresneda I et al (2002) Postischemic renal oxidative stress induces inflammatory response through PAF and oxidized phospholipids. Prevention by antioxidant treatment. FASEB J 16:908–910

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Lopez-Garcia E, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Li TY et al (2014) The Mediterranean-style diet pattern and mortality among men and women with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 99:172–180

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Lucas L, Russell A, Keast R (2011) Molecular mechanisms of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory benefits of virgin olive oil and the phenolic compound oleocanthal. Curr Pharm Des 17:754–768

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Maliba R, Lapointe S, Neagoe PE et al (2006) Angiopoietins-1 and -2 are both capable of mediating endothelial PAF synthesis: intracellular signalling pathways. Cell Signal 18:1947–1957

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Marathe GK, Zimmerman GA, Prescott SM, McIntyre TM (2002) Activation of vascular cells by PAF-like lipids in oxidized LDL. Vascul Pharmacol 38:193–200

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Marrugat J, Covas MI, Fito M, Schroder H, Miro-Casas E, Gimeno E, Lopez-Sabater MC, de la Torre R, Farre M (2004) Effects of differing phenolic content in dietary olive oils on lipids and LDL oxidation—a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 43:140–147

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Medzhitov R (2008) Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature 454:428–435

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Melnikova V, Bar-Eli M (2007) Inflammation and melanoma growth and metastasis: the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its receptor. Cancer Metastasis Rev 26:359–371

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Menezes-Garcia Z, Oliveira MC, Lima RL, Soriani FM, Cisalpino D, Botion LM, Teixeira MM, Souza DG, Ferreira AV (2014) Lack of platelet-activating factor receptor protects mice against diet-induced adipose inflammation and insulin-resistance despite fat pad expansion. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22:663–672

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Moreno-Luna R, Munoz-Hernandez R, Miranda ML, Costa AF, Jimenez-Jimenez L, Vallejo-Vaz AJ, Muriana FJ, Villar J, Stiefel P (2012) Olive oil polyphenols decrease blood pressure and improve endothelial function in young women with mild hypertension. Am J Hypertens 25:1299–1304

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Mullick AE, Tobias PS, Curtiss LK (2005) Modulation of atherosclerosis in mice by Toll-like receptor 2. J Clin Invest 115:3149–3156

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Nasopoulou C, Zabetakis I (2012) Benefits of fish oil replacement by plant originated oils in compounded fish feeds. A review. LWT-Food Sci Technol 47:217–224

    Google Scholar 

  67. Nasopoulou C, Zabetakis I (2013) Agricultural and aquacultural potential of olive pomace a review. J Agric Sci 5:116–127

    Google Scholar 

  68. Nasopoulou C, Stamatakis G, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I (2011) Effects of olive pomace and olive pomace oil on growth performance, fatty acid composition and cardio protective properties of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Food Chem 129:1108–1113

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Nasopoulou C, Gogaki V, Stamatakis G et al (2013) Evaluation of the in vitro anti-atherogenic properties of lipid fractions of olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fed with olive pomace enriched fish feed. Mar Drugs 11:3676–3688

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Nasopoulou C, Smith T, Detopoulou M et al (2014) Structural elucidation of olive pomace fed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) polar lipids with cardioprotective activities. Food Chem 145:1097–1105

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Nathan C (2002) Points of control in inflammation. Nature 420:846–852

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Ninio E (2005) Phospholipid mediators in the vessel wall: involvement in atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 8:123–131

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Ninio E, Leyravaud S, Bidault J et al (1991) Cell adhesion by membrane-bound paf-acether. Int Immunol 3:1157–1163

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Nomikos T, Karantonis HC, Fragopoulou E, Demopoulos CA (2002) One-step separation system for the main phospholipids, glycolipids, and phenolics by normal phase HPLC. Application to polar lipid extracts from olive and sunflower oil. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 25:137–149

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Nourshargh S, Larkin SW, Das A, Williams TJ (1995) Interleukin-1-induced leukocyte extravasation across rat mesenteric microvessels is mediated by platelet-activating factor. Blood 85:2553–2558

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Ostrovsky L, King AJ, Bond S et al (1998) A juxtacrine mechanism for neutrophil adhesion on platelets involves platelet-activating factor and a selectin-dependent activation process. Blood 91:3028–3036

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Pontoniere P, Martiradonna D (2012) Inflammation and olive polyphenols: a perspective review of supporting literature. Agro Food Ind Hi Tech 23:69–71

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Psaltopoulou T, Kosti RI, Haidopoulos D, Dimopoulos M, Panagiotakos DB (2011) Olive oil intake is inversely related to cancer prevalence: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 13,800 patients and 23,340 controls in 19 observational studies. Lipids Health Dis 10:127

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Psaltopoulou T, Sergentanis TN, Panagiotakos DB et al (2013) Mediterranean diet, stroke, cognitive impairment, and depression: a meta-analysis. Ann Neurol 74:580–591

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Quarck R, De GB, Stengel D et al (2001) Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of human platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase prevents injury-induced neointima formation and reduces spontaneous atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation 103:2495–2500

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Rocha VZ, Libby P (2009) Obesity, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Nat Rev Cardiol 6:399–409

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Rouis M, Nigon F, Chapman MJ (1988) Platelet activating factor is a potent stimulant of the production of active oxygen species by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 156:1293–1301

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Ruano J, Lopez-Miranda J, Fuentes F, Moreno JA, Bellido C, Perez-Martinez P, Lozano A, Gomez P, Jimenez Y, Perez JF (2005) Phenolic content of virgin olive oil improves ischemic reactive hyperemia in hypercholesterolemic patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 46:1864–1868

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Rubin RM, Rosenbaum JT (1988) A platelet-activating factor antagonist inhibits interleukin 1-induced inflammation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 154:429–436

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Salvini S, Sera F, Caruso D, Giovannelli L, Visioli F, Saieva C, Masala G, Ceroti M, Giovacchini V, Pitozzi V, Galli C, Romani A, Mulinacci N, Bortolomeazzi R, Dolara P, Palli D (2006) Daily consumption of a high-phenol extra-virgin olive oil reduces oxidative DNA damage in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr 95:742–751

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Serhan CN, Savill J (2005) Resolution of inflammation: the beginning programs the end. Nat Immunol 6:1191–1197

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Shao B (2012) Site-specific oxidation of apolipoprotein A-I impairs cholesterol export by ABCA1, a key cardioprotective function of HDL. Biochim Biophys Acta 1821:490–501

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Sirois MG, Plante GE, Braquet P, Sirois P (1990) Tumor necrosis factor primes the effects of platelet-activating factor on rat vascular permeability. J Lipid Mediat 2(Suppl):S109–S117

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. Snyder F (1995a) Platelet-activating factor and its analogs: metabolic pathways and related intracellular processes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1254:231–249

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Snyder F (1995b) Platelet-activating factor: the biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes. Biochem J 305:689–705

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. Sofi F, Macchi C, Abbate R et al (2013) Mediterranean diet and health. BioFactors 39:335–342

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Stafforini DM (2009) Biology of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH, lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2). Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 23:73–83

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Stafforini DM, Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM (1992) The platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase from human plasma prevents oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 105:44–63

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. Stark AH, Madar Z (2002) Olive oil as a functional food: epidemiology and nutritional approaches. Nutr Rev 60:170–176

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Stewart AG, Dubbin PN, Harris T, Dusting GJ (1990) Platelet-activating factor may act as a second messenger in the release of icosanoids and superoxide anions from leukocytes and endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:3215–3219

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Subbanagounder G, Leitinger N, Shih PT et al (1999) Evidence that phospholipid oxidation products and/or platelet-activating factor play an important role in early atherogenesis: in vitro and in vivo inhibition by WEB 2086. Circ Res 85:311–318

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Tjoelker LW, Wilder C, Eberhardt C et al (1995) Anti-inflammatory properties of a platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. Nature 374:549–553

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Tsantila N, Karantonis HC, Perrea DN et al (2007) Antithrombotic and antiatherosclerotic properties of olive oil and olive pomace polar extracts in rabbits. Mediators Inflamm 2007:36204

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. Tsantila N, Karantonis HC, Perrea DN et al (2010) Atherosclerosis regression study in rabbits upon olive pomace polar lipid extract administration. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20:740–747

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Tsantila N, Tsoupras AB, Fragopoulou E et al (2011) In vitro and in vivo effects of statins on platelet-activating factor and its metabolism. Angiology 62:209–218

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Tsoupras AB, Fragopoulou E, Nomikos T et al (2007) Characterization of the de novo biosynthetic enzyme of platelet activating factor, DDT-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase, of human mesangial cells. Mediators Inflamm 2007:27683–27693

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. Tsoupras AB, Iatrou C, Frangia C, Demopoulos CA (2009) The implication of platelet activating factor in cancer growth and metastasis: potent beneficial role of PAF-inhibitors and antioxidants. Infect Disord Drug Targets 9:390–399

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Tsoupras AB, Fragopoulou E, Iatrou C, Demopoulos CA (2011) In vitro protective effects of olive pomace polar lipids towards platelet activating factor metabolism in human renal cells. Curr Top Nutraceutical Res 9:105–110

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. Visioli F, Bellomo G, Montedoro G, Galli C (1995) Low density lipoprotein oxidation is inhibited in vitro by olive oil constituents. Atherosclerosis 117:25–32

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Vittos O, Toana B, Vittos A, Moldoveanu E (2012) Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2): a review of its role and significance as a cardiovascular biomarker. Biomarkers 17:289–302

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Walton KA, Cole AL, Yeh M, Subbanagounder G, Krutzik SR, Modlin RL, Lucas RM, Nakai J, Smart EJ, Vora DK, Berliner JA (2003) Specific phospholipid oxidation products inhibit ligand activation of toll-like receptors 4 and 2. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23:1197–1203

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Weinbrenner T, Fito M, de la Torre R, Saez GT, Rijken P, Tormos C, Coolen S, Albaladejo MF, Abanades S, Schroder H, Marrugat J, Covas MI (2004) Olive oils high in phenolic compounds modulate oxidative/antioxidative status in men. J Nutr 134:2314–2321

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  108. Widmer RJ, Freund MA, Flammer AJ, Sexton J, Lennon R, Romani A, Mulinacci N, Vinceri FF, Lerman LO, Lerman A (2013) Beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich olive oil in patients with early atherosclerosis. Eur J Nutr 52:1223–1231

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Wiseman SA, Mathot JN, de Fouw NJ, Tijburg LB (1996) Dietary non-tocopherol antioxidants present in extra virgin olive oil increase the resistance of low density lipoproteins to oxidation in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 120:15–23

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Yanni AE (2004) The laboratory rabbit: an animal model of atherosclerosis research. Lab Anim 38:246–256

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Yubero-Serrano EM, Gonzalez-Guardia L, Rangel-Zuniga O, Delgado-Lista J, Gutierrez-Mariscal FM, Perez-Martinez P, Delgado-Casado N, Cruz-Teno C, Tinahones FJ, Villalba JM, Perez-Jimenez F, Lopez-Miranda J (2012) Mediterranean diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 modifies the expression of proinflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes in elderly men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 67:3–10

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. Zhou W, Javors MA, Olson MS (1992) Platelet-activating factor as an intercellular signal in neutrophil-dependent platelet activation. J Immunol 149:1763–1769

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  113. Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM et al (2002) The platelet-activating factor signaling system and its regulators in syndromes of inflammation and thrombosis. Crit Care Med 30:S294–S301

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Constantina Nasopoulou.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Nasopoulou, C., Karantonis, H.C., Detopoulou, M. et al. Exploiting the anti-inflammatory properties of olive (Olea europaea) in the sustainable production of functional food and neutraceuticals. Phytochem Rev 13, 445–458 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-014-9350-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Olive oil
  • Olive pomace
  • Anti-inflammatory properties
  • Functional food