Endophytic fungi and their metabolites isolated from Indian medicinal plant

Abstract

Endophytic fungi have been creating a considerable interest and curiosity among researchers since past three decades globally, owing to their recognition as an inexhaustible source of structurally and biologically novel compounds, alternative source of metabolites functionally identical to plant produced metabolites and their ability to impart resistance in host plants against various biotic and abiotic stresses. In this review, we have earnestly attempted to compile a vast array of endophytic fungi assemblages harbored inside Indian medicinal plants which have been reported during last decade from India.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Ahmad I, Hussain H, Schulz B, Draeger S, Padula D, Pescitelli G, Van Ree T, Krohn K (2011) Three new antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. Eur J Org Chem 15:2867–2873

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Akello J, Dubois T, Gold CS, Coyne D, Nakavuma J, Paparu P (2007) Beauvaria bassiana Vuillemin as an endophyte in tissue culture banana (Musa sp.). J Invertebr Pathol 96:34–42

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Aly AH, Debbab A, Proksch P (2011) Fungal endophytes: unique plant inhabitants with great promises. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 90(6):1829–1845

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Ananda K, Sridhar KR (2002) Diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots of mangrove species on the west coast of India. Can J Microbiol 48(10):871–878

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Anita DD, Sridhar KR, Bhat R (2009) Diversity of fungi associated with mangrove legume Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq.) W. Wright (Fabaceae). Livest Res Rural Dev 21(5):67

    Google Scholar 

  6. Arivudainambi USE, Anand TD, Shanmugaiah V, Karunakaran C, Rajenrdan A (2011) Novel bioactive metabolites producing endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 61(3):340–345

  7. Arnold AE, Maynard Z, Gilbert GS, Coley PD, Kursar TA (2000) Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Ecol Lett 3(4):267–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bacon C, White J (2000) Microbial endophytes. Marcel Dekker, New York 487

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bacon CW, Porter JK, Robbins JD, Luttrell ES (1977) Epichloe typhina from toxic tall fescue grasses. Appl Environ Microbiol 34:576–581

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Bae H, Sicher RC, Kim MS, Kim SH, Strem MD, Melnick RL, Bailey BA (2009) The beneficial endophyte Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b promotes growth and delays the onset of the drought response in Theobroma cacao. J Exp Bot 60:3279–3295

    Google Scholar 

  11. Beena KR, Ananda K, Sridhar KR (2000) Fungal endophytes of three sand dune plant species of west coast of India. Sydowia 52(1):1–9

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bhagat J, Kaur A, Sharma M, Saxena AK, Chadha BS (2012) Molecular and functional characterization of endophytic fungi from traditional medicinal plants. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28(3):963–971

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Bhagobaty RK, Joshi SR, Kumar R (2010) Penicillium verruculosum RS7PF: a root fungal endophyte associated with an ethno medicinal plant of the indigenous tribes of Eastern India. Afr J Microbiol Res 4(9):766–770

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Bhagopaty RK, Joshi SR (2012) Enzymatic activity of fungi endophytic on five medicinal plant species of the pristine sacred forests of Meghalaya, India. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 17:33–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bills GF, Menendez VG, Platas G (2012) Kabatiella bupleuri sp. nov. (Dothideales), a pleomorphic epiphyte and endophyte of the Mediterranean plant Bupleurum gibraltarium (Apiceae). Mycologia 104(4):962–973

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Brown KB, Hyde KD, Guest DJ (1998) Preliminary studies on endophytic fungal communities of Musa acuminata species complex in Hong Kong and Australia. Fungal Divers 1:27–51

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bull A (2004) Microbial diversity and bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  18. Carbal D, Stone K, Carroll GC (1993) The internal mycobiota of Juncus sp. microscopic and cultural observations of infection patterns. Mycol Res 97:367–376

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Carroll GE (1986) The biology of the endophytism in plants with particular reference to woody perennials. In: Fokkema NJ, van den Heuvel J (eds) The microbiology of the phyllosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 205–222

    Google Scholar 

  20. Chakravarthi BVSK, Das P, Surendranath K, Karande AA, Jayabaskran C (2008) Production of paclitaxel by Fusarium solani isolated from Taxus celebica. J Biosci 33(2):259–267

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. De Bary (1866) Morphologie und Physiologie Pilze, Flechten, und myxomyceten. Hofmeister’s Handbook of physiological botany, vol. 2 Leipzig

  22. Deshmukh SK, Mishra PD, Kulkarni-Almeida A, Verekar S, Sahoo MR, Periyasamy G, Goswami H, Khanna A, Balakrishnan A, Vishwakarma R (2009) Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity of ergoflavin isolated from an endophytic fungus. Chem Biodivers 6(5):784–789

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Devarajan PT, Suryanarayanan TS, Geetha V (2002) Endophytic fungi associated with the tropical seagrass Halophila ovalis. Indian J Mar Sci 31:73–74

    Google Scholar 

  24. Devi P, Rodriguez C, Naik CG, D’Souza L (2012) Isolation and characterization of antibacterial compound from a Mangrove endophyte Fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC5108. Indian J Microbiol 1–7. doi:10.1007/s12088-012-0277-8

  25. Dey P, Banerjee J, Maiti MK (2011) Comparative lipid profiling of two endophytic fungal isolates-Colletotrichum sp. and Alternaria sp. having potential utilities as biodiesel feedstock. Bioresour Technol 102(10):5815–5823

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Dhankar S, Kumar S, Sandeep D, Yadav JP (2012) Antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes isolated from Salvadora Oleoides Decne. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 4(2):380–385

    Google Scholar 

  27. Dreyfuss MM, Chapela IH (1994) Potential of fungi in discovery of novel, low-molecular weight in pharmaceuticals. In: Gullo VP (ed) The discovery of natural products with therapeutic potential. Butterworth-Heinamann, London, pp 49–80

    Google Scholar 

  28. Espinosa-Garcia FJ, Langenheim JH (1991) Effect of some leaf essential oil phenotypes in coastal redwood on the growth of several fungi with endophytic stages. Biochem Syst Ecol 19(8):629–642

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Firakova S, Sturdikova M, Muckova M (2007) Bioactive secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms associated with plants. Biologia 62:251–257

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Freeman EM (1904) The seed fungus of Lolium temulentum L. Darnel. Phil Trans R Soc Land B 196:1–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Fu J, Zhou Y, Li HF, Ye YH, Guo JH (2011) Antifungal metabolites from Phomopsis sp. By254, an endophytic fungus in Gossypium hirustum. Afr J Microbiol Res 5(10):1231–1236

    Google Scholar 

  32. Ganley RJ, Newcombe G (2006) Fungal endophytes in seeds and needles of Pinus monticola. Mycol Res 110(3):318–327

    Google Scholar 

  33. Gloer JB (1995) Antiinsectan natural products from fungal sclerotia. Acc Chem Res 28:343–350

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Gogoi DK, Boruah DHP, Saikia R, Bora TC (2008a) Optimization of process parameters for improved production of bioactive metabolite by a novel endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. DF2 isolated from Taxus wallichiana of North East India. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24(1):79–87

    Google Scholar 

  35. Gogoi DK, Mazumder S, Saikia R, Bora TC (2008b) Impact of submerged culture conditions on growth and bioactive metabolite produced by endophyte Hypocrea spp. NSF-08isolated from Dillenia indica Linn. in North-East India. J de Mycol Med 18(1):1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Gond SK, Verma VC, Kumar A, Kumar V, Kharwar RN (2007) Study of endophytic fungal community from different parts of Aegle marmelos Correae (Rutaceae) from Varanasi India. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23(10):1371–1375

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Gond SK, Mishra A, Sharma VK, Verma SK, Kumar J, Kharwar RN, Kumar A (2012) Diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Nycanthes arbortristis, a well known medicinal plant of India. Mycoscience 53(2):113–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Gunatilaka AAL (2006) Natural products from plant-associated microorganisms: distribution, structural diversity, bioactivity, and implication of their occurrence. J Nat Prod 69:509–526

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Hawksworth DL (1991) The fungal dimension of biodiversity: magnitude, significance and conservation. Mycol Res 95:641–655

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Hoffman M, Arnold AE (2008) Geographic locality and host identity shape fungal endophyte communities in cupressaceous trees. Mycol Res 112:331–344

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Huang CH, Pan JH, Chen B, Yu M, Huang HB, Zhu X, Lu YJ, She ZG, Lin YC (2011) Three bianthraquinone derivatives from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. ZJ9-6B from South China Sea. Mar drugs 9(5):832–834

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Inacio ML, Silva GH, Teles HL, Trevisan HC, Cavalhaeiro AJ, Bolzani VDS, Young MCM, Plenning LH, Araujo AR (2006) Antifungal metabolites from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an endophytic fungus in Cryptocarya mandioccana Nees. Biochem Syst Ecol 34(11):822–824

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Jacob M, Bhat DJ (2000) Two new endophytic conidial fungi from India. Cryptogam Mycol 21(2):81–88

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Kharwar RN, Verma VC, Strobel G, Ezra D (2008) The endophytic fungal complex of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Curr Sci India 95(2):228–233

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Kharwar RN, Verma VC, Kumar A, Gond SK, Harper JK, Hess WM, Lobkovosky E, Ma C, Ren Y, Strobel GA (2009) Javanicin, an antibacterial napthoquinone from an endophytic fungus of Neem, Chloridium sp. Curr Microbiol 58(3):233–238

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Kharwar RN, Mishra A, Gond SK, Stierle A, Stierle D (2011) Anticancer compounds derived from fungal endophytes: their importance and future challenges. Nat Prod Rep 28:1208–1228

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Kjer J, Wray V, Edrada-Ebel R, Ebel R, Pretsch A, Lin W, Proksch P (2009) Xanalteric acids I and II and related phenolic compounds from an endophytic Alternaria sp. isolated from the mangrove plant Sonneratia alba. J Nat Prod 72(11):2053–2057

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Krohn K, Farooq U, Hussain H, Ahmad I, Rheinheimer J, Draeger S, Schulz B, Van Ree T (2011) Phomosines H-J, novel highly substituted biaryl ethers isolated from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. from Ligustrum vulgare. Nat Prod Commun 6(12):1907–1912

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Kumar S, Kaushik N, Edrada-Ebel R, Ebel R, Proksch P (2008) Endophytic fungi for pest and disease management. In: Ciancio A, Mukerji KG (eds) Integrated management of diseases caused by fungi, phytoplasma and bacteria. Springer, Berlin, pp 365–387

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  50. Kumar M, Yadav V, Tuteja N, Johri AK (2009) Antioxidant enzyme activities in maize plants colonized with Piriformospora indica. Microbiology 155(3):780–790

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Kumar S, Kaushik N, Edraba-Ebel R, Ebel R, Proksh P (2010) Isolation, Characterisation and bioactivities of endophytic fungi of Tylophora indica. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 27(3):571–577

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Kumar M, Yadav V, Kumar H, Sharma R, Singh A, Tuteja N, Johri AK (2011) Piriformospora indica enhances plant growth by transferring phosphate. Plant Signal Behav 6(5):723–725

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. Macia-Vicente JG, Jansson HB, Rosso LC, Ciancio A, Lopez-Llorca LV (2009) Colonization of barley roots by endophytic Fusarium equiseti and Pochonia chlamydosporia: effects on plant growth and disease. Ann Appl Biol 155(3):391–401

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Mahapatra S, Banerjee D (2010) Diversity and screening for antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from Alstonia scholaris. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 57(3):215–223

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Maria GL, Sridhar KR, Raviraja NS (2005) Antimicrobial and enzyme activity of mangrove endophytic fungi of Southwest coast of India. J Agric Technol 1(1):67–80

    Google Scholar 

  56. Mishra A, Gond SK, Kumar A, Sharma VK, Kharwar RN, Sieber TN (2012) Season and tissue type affect fungal endophyte communities of the Indian medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia more strongly than geographic location. Microbial Ecol 64(2):388–398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Mittermeier RA, Mast RB, Del Prado CP, Mittermeier CG (1997) Peru. In: Mittermeier RA, Robles Gil P, Mittermeier CG (eds) Megadiversity: earth’s biologically wealthiest nations. CEMEX, Monterrey, pp 282–297

    Google Scholar 

  58. MoEF (2009a) Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi India: India’s fourth national report to the convention on biological diversity, pp 15–20

  59. MoEF (2009b) Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi India: India’s fourth national report to the convention on biological diversity, pp 13

  60. MoEF (2009c) Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi India: India’s fourth national report to the convention on biological diversity, pp 33

  61. MoEF (2009d) Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi India: India’s fourth national report to the convention on biological diversity, pp 31

  62. MoEF (2009e) Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi India: India’s fourth national report to the convention on biological diversity, pp 23

  63. Mostert L, Crous PW, Petrini O (2000) Endophytic fungi associated with shoots and leaves of Vitis vinifera, with specific reference to the Phomopsis viticola complex. Sydowia 52:46–58

    Google Scholar 

  64. Murali TS, Suryanarayanan TS, Venkatesan G (2007) Fungal endophyte communities in two tropical forests of southern India: diversity and host affiliation. Mycol Prog 6(3):191–199

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Nadeem M, Ram M, Alam P, Ahmad MM, Mohammad A, Al-Qurainy F, Khan S, Abdin MZ (2012) Fusarium solani, P1, a new endophytic podophyllotoxin producing fungus from roots of Podophyllum hexandrum. Afr J Microbiol Res 6(10):2493–2499

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Naik BS, Shashikala J, Krishnamurthy YL (2008) Diversity of fungal endophytes in shruby medicinal plants of Malnad region, Western Ghats, Southern India. Fungal Ecol 1(2–3):89–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Naik BS, Shashikala J, Krishnamurthy YL (2009) Study on the diversity of endophytic communities from rice (Oryza sativa L.) and their antagonistic activities in vitro. Microbiol Res 164(3):290–296

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Nair PKK (2004) Plant taxonomy. Curr Sci India 86(5):665–667

    Google Scholar 

  69. Nair ShreekalaK, Bhat DJ (2002) Kumbhamaya jalapriya, a new endophytic hyphomycete from India. Mycotaxon 84:65–68

    Google Scholar 

  70. Nalini MS, Mahesh B, Tejesvi MV, Prakash HS, Subbaiah V, Kini KR, Shetty HS (2005) Fungal endophytes from the three-leaved caper Crataeva magna (Capparidaceae). Mycopathologia 159(2):245–249

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Pekson-Berghofer T, Shahollari B, Giong PH, Hehl S, Markert C, Blanke V, Kost G, Varma A, Oelmuller R (2004) Association of Piriformospora indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots represents a novel system to study beneficial plant microbe interaction and involves early plant protein modifications in the endoplasmic reticulum and at plasma membrane. Physiol Plant 122:465–477

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Petrini O (1991) Fungal endophytes of tree leaves. In: Andrews J, Hirano S (eds) Microbiol ecology of leaves. Springer, New York, pp 179–197

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  73. Prabhugaonkar A, Bhat DJ (2009) Rattania setulifera, an undescribed endophytic hyphomycete on rattans from Western Ghats, India. Mycotaxon 108:217–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Puri SG, Verma V, Amna T, Qazi GN, Spiteller M (2005) An endophytic fungus from Nothapodytes foetida that produces camptothecin. J Nat Prod 68(12):1717–1719

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Puri SC, Nazir A, Chawla R, Arora R, Riya-ul-Hasan S, Amna T, Ahmed B, Verma V, Singh S, Sagar R, Sharma A, Kumar R, Sharma RK, Qazi GN (2006) The endophytic fungus Trametes hirusta as a novel alternative source of podophyllotoxin and related aryl tetralin lignans. J Biotechnol 122(4):494–510

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. Qiang X, Weiss M, Kogel KH, Schaffer P (2012) Piriformospora indica- a mutualistic basidiomycete with an exceptionally large plant host range. Mol Plant Pathol 13(5):508–518

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Qin JC, Zhang YM, Hu L, Ma YT, Gao JM (2009) Cytotoxic metabolite produced by Alternaria no. 28, an endophytic fungus isolated from Ginkgo biloba. Nat Prod Commun 4(11):1473–1476

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Rajagopal K (2004) Endophytic fungi of a palm, Borassus flabellifer L.A first report from India. Asian J Microbiol Biotechnol Environ Sci 6(4):541–544

    Google Scholar 

  79. Raviraja NS, Maria GL, Sridhar KR (2006) Antimicrobial evaluation of endophytic fungi inhabiting medicinal plants of the Western Ghats of India. Eng Life Sci 6(5):515–520

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. Redman RS, Sheehan KB, Stout RG, Rodriguez RJ, Henson JM (2002) Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis. Science 298:1581

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Redman RS, Kim YO, Woodward CJDA, Greer C, Espino L, Doty SL, Rodriguez RJ (2011) Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change. PLoS ONE 6(7):e1482. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014823

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Rodriguez R, Redman R (2008) More than 400 million years of evolution and some plants still can’t make it on their own: plant stress tolerance via fungal symbiosis. J Exp Bot 59(5):1109–1114

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Rollinger JL, Langenheim JH (1993) Geographic survey of fungal endophyte community composition in leaves of coastal redwood. Mycologia 85:149–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Schulz B, Boyle C (2005) The endophytic continuum. Mycol Res 109:661–687

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Seena S, Sridhar KR (2004) Endophytic fungal diversity of 2 sand dune wild legumes from the southwest coast of India. Can J Microbiol 50(12):1015–1021

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Selvanathan S, Indrakumar I, Johnpaul M (2011) Biodiversity of the endophytic fungi isolated from Calotropis gigantea. Recent Res Sci Technol 3(4):94–100

    Google Scholar 

  87. Shekhawat KK, Rao DV, Batra A (2010) Morphological study of endophytic fungi inhabiting leaves of Melia azedarach L. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 5(3):177–180

    Google Scholar 

  88. Shweta S, Zuehlke S, Ramesha BT, Priti V, Mohana Kumar P, Ravikanth G, Spiteller M, Vasudeva R, Uma Shanker R (2010) Endophytic fungal strains of Fusarium solani from Apodytes dimidata E. Mey. Ex. Arn (lcacinaceae) produce camptothecin, 10-hydroxycamptothecin and 9-methoxycamptothecin. Phytochemistry 71(1):117–122

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. Sonaimuthu V, Krishnamoorthy S, Johnpaul M (2010) Optimization of process parameters for improved production of Taxol by a novel endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis oxyanthi SVJM060 isolated from Taxus baccata. J Biotechnol 150:471

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Sowparthani K, Rajagopal K (2011) Screening of endophytic fungi from a medicinal plant Justicia adathoda L. for antibacterial activity. Int J Pharm Technol 3(3):2992–3000

    Google Scholar 

  91. Sreekanth D, Sushim GK, Syed A, Khan BM, Ahmad A (2011) Molecular and morphological characterization of a taxol-producing endophytic fungus, Gliocladium sp., from Taxus baccata. Mycobiology 39(3):151–157

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Stierle A, Strobel G, Stierle D (1993) Taxol and taxane production by Taxomyces andreanae and endophytic fungus of Pacific yew. Science 260(5105):214–216

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. Strobel GA (2003) Endophytes as sources of bioactive products. Microbes Infect 5:535–544

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. Strobel G, Daisy B, Castillo U, Harper J (2004) Natural products from endophytic microorganisms. J Nat Prod 67(2):257–268

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Suryanarayanan TS, Kumaresan V (2000) Endophytic fungi of some halophytes from an estuarine mangrove forest. Mycol Res 104:1465–1467

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Suryanarayanan TS, Murali TS (2006) Incidence of Leptosphaerulina crassiasca in symptomless leaves of peanut in southern India. J Basic Microbiol 46(4):305–309

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Suryanarayanan TS, Vijaykrishna D (2001) Fungal endophytes of aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis. Fungal Divers 8:155–161

    Google Scholar 

  98. Suryanarayanan TS, Kumaresan V, Johnson JA (1998) Foliar fungal endophytes from two species of the mangrove Rhizophora. Can J Microbiol 44(10):1003–1006

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. Tan RX, Zou WX (2001) Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites. Nat Prod Rep 18:448–459

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. Taylor JE, Hyde KD, Jones EBG (1999) Endophytic fungi associated with the temperate palm Trachycarpus fortunei both within and outside of its natural geographic range. New Phytol 142:335–346

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Tejesvi MV, Mahesh B, Nalini MS, Prakash HS, Kini KR, Subbiah V, Shetty HS (2006) Fungal endophyte assemblages from ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal trees. Can J Microbiol 52(5):427–435

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. Varma A, Verma S, Sudha SN, Butehorn B, Frankhen P (1999) Piriformospora indica, a cultivable plant growth promoting root endophyte. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:2741–2744

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. Verma VC, Gond SK, Kumar A, Kharwar RN, Strobel G (2008) The endophytic mycoflora of bark, leaf, and stem tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) from Varanasi India. Microbial Ecol 54(1):119–125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Verma VC, Lobkovsky E, Gange AC, Singh SK, Prakash S (2011) Piperine production by endophytic fungus Periconia sp. isolated from Piper longum L. J Antibiot 64:427–431

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. Vourela H (2004) Natural products in the process of finding new drug candidates. Curr Med Chem 11:1375–1389

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Waller F, Baltruschat H, Achatz B, Becker K, Fischer M, Fodor J, Heier T, Huckelhoven R, Neumann C (2005) The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica reprograms barley to salt-stress tolerance, disease resistance and higher yield. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(38):13386–13391

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. Wang Y, Zeng QG, Zhang ZB, Yan RM, Wang LY, Zhu D (2011) Isolation and characterization of endophytic huperzine A producing fungi from Huperzia serrata. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 38(9):1267–1278

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  108. Wilson D (1995) Endophyte-the evolution of a term, a clarification of its use and definition. Oikos 73:274–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Yang X, Guo S, Zhang L, Shao H (2003) Selection of producing podophyllotoxin endophytic fungi from podophyllin plant. Nat Prod Res Dev 15:419–422

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. Zhang L, Guo B, Li H, Zeng S, Shao H, Gu S, Wei R (2000) Preliminary study on the isolation of endophytic fungus of Catharanthus roseus and its fermentation to produce products of therapeutic value. Chinese traditional and Herbal drugs 31:805–807

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  111. Zhang HW, Song YC, Tan RX (2006) Biology and chemistry of endophytes. Nat Prod Rep 23:753–771

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Authors are thankful to Prof. Robert Verpoorte for his encouragement. Kanika Chowdhary is grateful to Council of Industrial and scientific research, New Delhi, India, for providing Research Fellowship.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nutan Kaushik.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chowdhary, K., Kaushik, N., Coloma, A.G. et al. Endophytic fungi and their metabolites isolated from Indian medicinal plant. Phytochem Rev 11, 467–485 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-012-9264-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Balanced antagonism
  • Endophytic fungi
  • Medicinal plants
  • Secondary metabolites