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Antioxidant and antimicrobial actions of the clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum L.

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Purpose of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of the petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium clavatum L. (LC) from Lycopodiaceae growing in Turkey. Antioxidant activity of the LC extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method at 0.2 mg/ml using microplate-reader assay. Antiviral assessment of LC extracts was evaluated towards the DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and the RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) using Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) and Vero cell lines. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were tested against standard and isolated strains of the following bacteria; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis as well as the fungi; Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. All of the extracts possessed noteworthy activity against ATCC strain of S. aureus (4 μg/ml), while the LC extracts showed reasonable antifungal effect. On the other hand, we found that only the chloroform extract was active against HSV (16–8 μg/ml), while petroleum ether and alkaloid extracts inhibited potently PI-3 (16–4 μg/ml and 32–4 μg/ml, respectively). However, all of the extracts had insignificant antiradical effect on DPPH. In addition, we also analyzed the content of the alkaloid fraction of the plant by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified lycopodine as the major alkaloid.

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This work was financially supported by a research grant provided by the Foundation for Scientific Research Projects of Gazi University (Project code no: 02/2006–30).

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Correspondence to Ilkay Orhan.

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Orhan, I., Özçelik, B., Aslan, S. et al. Antioxidant and antimicrobial actions of the clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum L.. Phytochem Rev 6, 189–196 (2007).

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