, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 275–287 | Cite as

Submergence-tolerant rice withstands complete submergence even in saline water: Probing through chlorophyll a fluorescence induction O-J-I-P transients

  • R. K. SarkarEmail author
  • Anuprita Ray
Original papers


Plants experience multiple abiotic stresses during the same growing season. The implications of submergence with and without saline water on growth and survival were investigated using four contrasting rice cultivars, FR13A (submergence-tolerant, salinity-susceptible), IR42 (susceptible to salinity and submergence), and Rashpanjor and AC39416 (salinity-tolerant, submergence-susceptible). Though both FR13A and IR42 showed sensitivity to salinity, FR13A exhibited higher initial biomass as well as maintained greater dry mass under saline condition. Greater reduction of chlorophyll (Chl) contents due to salinity was observed in the susceptible cultivars, including FR13A, compared to the salinity-tolerant cultivars. Exposure of plants to salinity before submergence decreased the survival chance under submergence. Yet, survival percentage under submergence was greater in FR13A compared to other cultivars. Generally, the reduction in the Chl content and damage to PSII were higher under the submergence compared to salinity conditions. The submergence-tolerant cultivar, FR13A, maintained greater quantities of Chl during submergence compared to other cultivars. Quantification of the Chl a fluorescence transients (JIP-test) revealed large cultivar differences in the response of PSII to submergence in saline and nonsaline water. The submergence-tolerant cultivar maintained greater chloroplast structural integrity and functional ability irrespective of the quality of flooding water.

Additional key words

energy flux Oryza sativa performance index saline flooding water stress tolerance 



quantum of light absorption per active reaction centre [M0 × (1/VJ) × (Fm/Fv)]




normal growth, submergence with nonsaline water


normal growth, submergence with 12 dS m−1 saline water


electron transport per quantum of absorption of light [(Fv/Fm) × (1 − VJ)]


electron transport per active reaction centre [M0 × (1/VJ) × (1 − VJ)]


minimal fluorescence


maximal fluorescence


variable fluorescence (Fm − F0)


maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII

F50μs, F150μs, F300μs, and F2ms

fluorescence intensity at 50, 150, or 300 μs, and 2 ms, respectively


initial slope of relative variable chlorophyll fluorescence [4 (F300μs − F50μs)/Fv]


oxygen evolving complex


performance index on the basis of utilization of absorbed energy


number of reaction centres per excited cross-section [Fv/Fm × (VJ/M0) × F0]


12 dS m−1 saline treatment before submergence, submergence with nonsaline water


12 dS m−1 saline treatment before submergence, submergence with 12 dS m−1 saline water


quantum of light utilized per reaction centre [M0 × (1/VJ)]


relative variable fluorescence at time 30 ms (I-step) after start of actinic light pulse [(F30ms − F50μs)/(Fm − F50μs)]


relative variable fluorescence at time 2 ms (J-step) after start of actinic light pulse [(F2ms − F0)/(Fm − F0)]


amplitude of the IP-phase [(1 − VI) = (Fm − F30ms)/(Fm − F50μs)]


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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© The Institute of Experimental Botany 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Crop Physiology and BiochemistryICAR-Central Rice Research InstituteCuttackIndia

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