Advertisement

Philosophical Studies

, Volume 175, Issue 3, pp 649–663 | Cite as

The justification of reconstructive and reproductive memory beliefs

  • Mary Salvaggio
Article

Abstract

Preservationism is a dominant account of the justification of beliefs formed on the basis of memory. According to preservationism, a memory belief is justified only if that belief was justified when it was initially held. However, we now know that much (if not most) of what we remember is not explicitly stored, but instead reconstructed when we attempt to recall it. Since reconstructive memory beliefs may not have been continuously held by the agent, or never held before at all, a purely preservationist account of memory does not allow for justified reconstructed memory beliefs. In this essay, I show how a process reliabilist account can maintain preservationism about reproductive memory beliefs while accommodating the justification of reconstructive memory beliefs. I argue that reconstructive memory is an inferential process, and that therefore the beliefs it produces are justified in the same way that other inferential beliefs are justified. Accordingly, my process reliabilist account combines a preservationist account of reproductive memory with an inferential account of reconstructive memory. I end by defending this view against objections.

Keywords

Memory Reliabilism Justification Preservationism Inference 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I wish to thank Alvin Goldman, Preston Greene, Jack Lyons, Susanna Schellenberg, and an anonymous referee for their helpful comments and guidance on drafts of this paper. I would also like to thank audiences at the Australasian Association of Philosophy Conference, National University of Singapore as well as the Rutgers philosophy and cognitive science graduate students for their helpful comments.

References

  1. Brewer, W., & Treyens, J. (1981). Role of schemata in memory for places. Cognitive Psychology, 13(2), 207–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cleary, A. M. (2008). Recognition memory, familiarity, and déjà vu experiences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(5), 353–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cubelli, R. (2010). A new taxonomy of memory and forgetting. In S. D. Salla (Ed.), Forgetting. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  4. Gabrieli, J. D. (1998). Cognitive neuroscience of human memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49(1), 87–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gallo, D. A. (2010). False memories and fantastic beliefs: 15 years of the DRM illusion. Memory and Cognition, 38(7), 833–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goldman, A. I. (1979/2008). What is justified belief? In Sosa, E., Kim, J., Fantl, J., & McGrath, M. (Eds.), Epistemology: An Anthology, Chapter 29 (2nd ed., pp. 333–347). New York: Wiley. (Reprinted from George Pappas (Ed.), 1979, Justification and knowledge. Boston: D. Reidel).Google Scholar
  7. Goldman, A. I. (1999). Internalism exposed. The Journal of Philosophy, 96(6), 271–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hemmer, P., & Steyvers, M. (2009). Integrating episodic and semantic information in memory for natural scenes. In Proceedings of the 31th annual conference of the cognitive science society (pp. 1557–1562). TX: Cognitive Science Society Austin.Google Scholar
  9. Huemer, M. (1999). The problem of memory knowledge. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 80(4), 346–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Koriat, A. (2007). Remembering: Metacognitive monitoring and control processes. In Science of memory: concepts (pp. 243-246). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Lackey, J. (2005). Memory as a generative epistemic source. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 70(3), 636–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Loftus, E. F. (1975). Leading questions and the eyewittness report. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 550–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loftus, E. F. (2005). Planting misinformation in the human mind: A 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory. Learning and Memory, 12(4), 361–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lyons, J. (2009). Perception and basic beliefs: Zombies, modules, and the problem of the external world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Martin, C., & Deutscher, M. (1966). Remembering. The Philosophical Review, 75, 161–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mazzoni, G., & Memon, A. (2003). Imagination can create false autobiographical memories. Psychological Science, 14, 186–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Michaelian, K. (2011). Generative memory. Philosophical Psychology, 24(3), 323–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Plantinga, A. (1993). Warrant and proper functioning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Roediger, H., & McDermott, K. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition, 21(4), 803–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schacter, D. L., Guerin, S. A., & Jacques, P. L. S. (2011). Memory distortion: An apaptive perpective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(10), 467–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schacter, D. L., & Tulving, E. (1994). What are the memory systems of 1994? In D. L. Schater & E. Tulving (Eds.), Memory systems, Chapter 1 (pp. 1–38). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  22. Schroer, R. (2008). Memory foundationalism and the problem of unforgotten carelessness. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 89(1), 74–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Senor, T. D. (1993). Internalistic foundationalism and the justification of memory belief. Synthese, 94(3), 453–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tulving, E. (2002). Episodic memory: From mind to brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tulving, E. (2005). Concepts of memory. In E. Tulving & F. Craik (Eds.), The oxford handbook of memory, Chapter 2 (p. 33-3). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations