Philosophical Studies

, Volume 162, Issue 2, pp 119–141 | Cite as

Phenomenal conservatism, classical foundationalism, and internalist justification

Article

Abstract

In “Compassionate Phenomenal Conservatism” (2007), “Phenomenal Conservatism and the Internalist Intuition” (2006), and Skepticism and the Veil of Perception (2001), Michael Huemer endorses the principle of phenomenal conservatism, according to which appearances or seemings constitute a fundamental source of (defeasible) justification for belief. He claims that those who deny phenomenal conservatism, including classical foundationalists, are in a self-defeating position, for their views cannot be both true and justified; that classical foundationalists have difficulty accommodating false introspective beliefs; and that phenomenal conservatism is most faithful to the central internalist intuition. I argue that Huemer’s self-defeat argument fails, that classical foundationalism is able to accommodate fallible introspective beliefs, and that classical foundationalism has no difficulty accommodating a relatively clear internalist intuition. I also show that the motivation for phenomenal conservatism is less than clear.

Keywords

Phenomenal conservatism Classical foundationalism Internalist justification Fallible foundational beliefs Michael Huemer 

References

  1. Bergmann, M. (2006). Justification without awareness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BonJour, L. (1978). Can empirical knowledge have a foundation? American Philosophical Quarterly, 15, 1–13.Google Scholar
  3. BonJour, L. (1985). The structure of empirical knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. BonJour, L. (2001a). Toward a defense of empirical foundationalism. In M. De Paul (Ed.), Resurrecting old-fashioned foundationalism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  5. BonJour, L. (2001b). The indispensability of internalism. Philosopical Topics, 29, 47–65.Google Scholar
  6. BonJour, L. (2003). A version of internalist foundationalism. In L. BonJour & E. Sosa (Eds.), Epistemic justification: Internalism vs. externalism, foundations vs. virtues. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. Chalmers, D. (2002). The content and epistemology of phenomenal belief. In Q. Smith & A. Jokic (Eds.), Consciousness: New philosophical essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. DePoe, J. (2011). Defeating the self-defeat argument for phenomenal conservatism. Philosophical Studies, 152(3), 347–359.Google Scholar
  9. Fales, E. (1996). A defense of the given. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  10. Feldman, R. (2004). The justification of introspective beliefs. In E. Connee & R. Feldman (Eds.), Evidentialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Fumerton, R. (1995). Metaepistemology and skepticism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  12. Fumerton, R. (2001). Classical foundationalism. In M. De Paul (Ed.), Resurrecting old-fashioned foundationalism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  13. Fumerton, R. (2010). Poston on similarity and acquaintance. Philosophical Studies, 147, 379–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gertler, B. (2001). Introspecting phenomenal states. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 63(2), 305–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goldman, A. (1999). Internalism exposed. The Journal of Philosophy, 96, 271–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hanna, N. (2010). Against phenomenal conservatism. Acta Analytica. doi:10.1007/s12136-010-0111-z.
  17. Hasan, A. (2011). Classical foundationalism and Bergmann’s dilemma for internalism. Journal of Philosophical Research, 36, 391–410.Google Scholar
  18. Horgan, T., & Kriegel, U. (2007). Phenomenal epistemology: What is consciousness that we may know it so well? Philosophical Issues, 17, 122–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huemer, M. (1999). The problem of memory knowledge. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 80, 346–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huemer, M. (2000). Direct realism and the brain-in-a-vat argument. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 61(2), 397–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huemer, M. (2001). Skepticism and the veil of perception. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefiled.Google Scholar
  22. Huemer, M. (2006). Phenomenal conservatism and the internalist intuition. American Philosophical Quarterly, 43(2), 147–158.Google Scholar
  23. Huemer, M. (2007). Compassionate phenomenal conservatism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 74(1), 30–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McGrew, T. (1995). The foundations of knowledge. Lanham, MD: Littlefield Adams Books.Google Scholar
  25. McGrew, T. (1999). A defense of classical foundationalism. In L. Pojman (Ed.), The theory of knowledge: Classical and contemporary readings (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  26. Moser, P. (1989). Knowledge and evidence. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations