Philosophical Studies

, Volume 159, Issue 2, pp 293–297 | Cite as

On substantial independence: a reply to Patrick Toner

Article
  • 133 Downloads

Abstract

Patrick Toner has recently criticized accounts of substance provided by Kit Fine, E. J. Lowe, and the author, accounts which say (to a first approximation) that substances cannot depend on things other than their own parts. On Toner’s analysis, the inclusion of this “parts exception” results in a disjunctive definition of substance rather than a unified account. In this paper (speaking only for myself, but in a way that would, I believe, support the other authors that Toner discusses), I first make clear what Toner’s criticism is, and then I respond to it. Including the “parts exception” is not the adding of a second condition but instead the creation of a new single condition. Since it is not the adding of a condition, the result is not disjunctive. Therefore, the objection fails.

Keywords

Substance Parts Independence Ontology Metaphysics 

References

  1. Fine, K. (1995). Ontological dependence. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 95, 269–290.Google Scholar
  2. Gorman, M. (2006a). Substance and identity-dependence. Philosophical Papers, 35(1), 103–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gorman, M. (2006b). Independence and substance. International Philosophical Quarterly, 46(2 issue 182), 147–159.Google Scholar
  4. Lowe, J. (1994a). Ontological dependency. Philosophical Papers, 23, 31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lowe, J. (1994b). Primitive substances. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 54, 531–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lowe, J. (1998). The possibility of metaphysics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Simons, P. (1998). A Farewell to Substance: a differentiated leave-taking. Ratio, 11, 235–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Toner, P. (2010). Independence accounts of substance and substantial parts. Philosophical Studies. doi: 10.1007/s11098-010-9521-4.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PhilosophyThe Catholic University of AmericaWashington DCUSA

Personalised recommendations