A systematic review of community pharmacist therapeutic knowledge of dietary supplements
- 868 Downloads
Background Internationally, the use of dietary supplements has been growing rapidly. Patient support for pharmacist sales of nutritional and dietary supplements is also strong. The increase in demand for nutritional and dietary supplements and subsequent advice about these products, however, makes it necessary that pharmacists maintain a contemporary knowledge of the area. Aim of review This systematic review was conducted to examine the current evidence regarding the level of the nutritional and dietary supplement knowledge of community pharmacists and their understanding of their therapeutic effects. Method Electronic databases including Medline, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL, Scifinder and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. Studies assessing nutritional knowledge of pharmacists in community pharmacies were eligible for inclusion. All languages and study designs were considered. Study results were analysed and pharmacist knowledge scores were given out of 100 %. Results From 5594 studies identified, nine met the inclusion criteria. Each study tested pharmacist knowledge with predetermined questions calculating results as the number of questions answered correctly. These knowledge scores were converted to a percentage score for the purpose of this paper. The median knowledge score across all papers was 64 %. A lack of studies assessing community pharmacists’ knowledge of commonly sold vitamins and minerals was observed. Conclusions Global community pharmacist knowledge of dietary supplements appears to be poor. Community pharmacists have an professional responsibility to provide accurate health information about dietary supplements as they do for any other therapies they provide to patients. Further research including that which assesses pharmacists’ therapeutic knowledge of commonly sold vitamins and minerals is suggested.
KeywordsCommunity pharmacy Knowledge Mineral Nutrition Pharmacist Vitamin
This research received no support from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflicts of interest
The authors of this Research Paper declare no conflict of interest.
- 1.Glynna L, Valderasb J, Healya P, Burkec E, Newelld J, Gillespiee P, et al. The prevalence of multimorbidity in primary care and its effect on health care utilization and cost. Fam Pract. 2011;28(5):523–6.Google Scholar
- 2.World Health Organization. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Geneva: 2003 Contract No.: 797. ISBN: 924120916X.Google Scholar
- 3.USFaDA-CfSaA. Dietary supplement health and education Act of 1994 USA, (1994).Google Scholar
- 10.The pharmacy guild of australia. productivity comission—issues paper: relative costs of doing business in Australia: Retail Trade Industry. 2014.Google Scholar
- 11.National productivity service. Information use and needs of complementary medicines users. December 2008, updated April 2009, pp. 6–7; www.nps.org.au/research_and_evaluation/current_research/complementary_medicines/cms_health_professionals_research/complementary_medicines_health_professionals_research
- 16.World Health Organisation Media Centre. Traditional medicine fact sheet no. 134. 2008; http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs134/en/index.html
- 19.Boggs S, Massey L, Armstrong J, Lassey W, Joseph J. Education of rural community pharmacists to provide nutrition information. Am J Pharm Educ. 1996;60:353–8.Google Scholar
- 20.The Cochrane Collaboration. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. 2011; 5.1.0. ISBN: 9780470712184.Google Scholar
- 21.Kemper K, Amata-Kynvi A, Dvorkin L, Whelan J, et al. Herbs and other dietary supplements: healthcare professionals’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Altern Ther Health Med. 2003;9(3):29–42.Google Scholar
- 22.Offricht DM, Malone M. Community pharmacists’ knowledge of antioxidant vitamins. J Pharm Technol. 1996;12(4):149–54.Google Scholar
- 24.Wadsworth LA, Oleksyn-Keenan TA, Cooper K. Nutrition knowledge, counselling practises and information sources of saskatchewan retail pharmacists. Can J Diet Pract Res. 1997;58(3):126–31.Google Scholar
- 26.Sweileh W, Abu Arrah E, Abu Taha A, Sawalha A, Salah O, Jamous R, et al. Dispensing practices, attitudes and knowledge of pharmacists towards herbal products in Palestine. Ibnosina J Med Biomed Sci. 2013;5(3):123–30.Google Scholar
- 29.Barnes P, Bloom B, Nahin R. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. United States National Center for Health Statistics, 2008; 12(10):1–24.Google Scholar
- 30.Henderson L, Gregory J, Swan G. The national diet and nutrition survey: adults aged 16–64 years. United Kingdom: The Office of National Statistics; 2002. ISBN 0116215690.Google Scholar
- 31.Australian Bureau of Statistics. 4802.0—National nutrition survey: selected highlights, Australia, 1995. Canberra, Australia: 1997; http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4802.0