Pharmacy World & Science

, 31:638 | Cite as

Effectiveness of a videoconference training course on implementing pharmacy services

  • Elena Dualde
  • Maria J. Faus
  • Francisco J. Santonja
  • Fernando Fernandez-LlimosEmail author
Research Article


Objective The aim of this research was to assess the effects of a series of four training courses comprised of 13 synchronous videoconferences on the implementation of cognitive services in Spanish community pharmacies. Setting A phone survey to continuing training course attendants. Methods A random sample of 225 pharmacists registered in a 2004 videoconference course was selected. The phone-survey questionnaire included quality perception elements rated on a 5-point Likert scale, and a series of questions used to identify position in the Rogers 5-step innovation–decision model. An algorithm was used to translate the questions into Rogers’ categories. To discover determinants of attendants position in these categories, bivariate analysis, simple correspondence analysis, and logistic regressions were performed. Main outcome measure Position in Rogers’ diffusion of innovation steps regarding the adoption of pharmacotherapy follow-up. Results The perception of the course quality rated between good and very good for the majority of respondents. A significant association between having attended two or more of these four courses and the Persuasion/Decision step in Rogers’s model appeared. No association was found between course attendance and the Implementation/Confirmation step of patient follow-up. Fifty percent of those who indicated they implemented the service reported following-up with less than 10 patients, and only 25% reported following up with more than 20 patients. Conclusions Although participation in these courses was associated with higher steps in Rogers’ model, significant association appeared only with Persuasion/Decision steps and not with the Implementation/Confirmation step, reflecting an attitude but not a performance change.


Clinical competence Continuing education, pharmacy Implementation Pharmacists Practice change 



We acknowledge Write Science Right for their English editing services. No external funding was received for this study.

Conflict of interests

Authors declare not having any kind of conflict of interest related with this study.


  1. 1.
    Berenguer B, La Casa C, de la Matta MJ, Martín-Calero MJ. Pharmaceutical care: past, present and future. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(31):3931–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Martin-Calero MJ, Machuca M, Murillo MD, Cansino J, Gastelurrutia MA, Faus MJ. Structural process and implementation programs of pharmaceutical care in different countries. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10:3969–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andres Iglesias JC, Andres Rodriguez NF, Fornos Perez JA. Community pharmacy-based research in Spain (1995–2005): a bibliometric study. Pharm Pract (Internet). 2007;5(1):21–30.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gastelurrutia MA, Faus MJ, Fernandez-Llimos F. Providing patient care in community pharmacies in Spain. Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39:2105–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Odedina FT, Segal R, Hepler CD, Lipowski E, Kimberlin C. Changing pharmacists’ practice pattern: pharmacists’ implementation of pharmaceutical care factors. J Soc Adm Pharm. 1996;13:74–88.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    van Mil JWF, de Boer WO, Tromp ThFJ. European barriers to implementation of pharmaceutical care. Int J Pharm Pract. 2001;9:163–8.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rossing C, Hansen EH, Krass I. Barriers and facilitators in pharmaceutical care: perceptions and experiences among Danish community pharmacies. J Soc Adm Pharm. 2001;19:55–64.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roberts AS, Hopp T, Sørensen EW, Benrimoj SI, Chen TF, Herborg H, et al. Understanding practice change in community pharmacy: a qualitative research instrument based on organisational theory. Pharm World Sci. 2003;25(5):227–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gastelurrutia MA, Fernandez-Llimos F, Garcia Delgado P, Gastelurrutia P, Faus MJ, Benrimoj SI. Barriers and facilitators to the dissemination and implementation of cognitive services in Spanish community pharmacies. Seguimiento Farmacoterapeutico. 2005;3(2):65–77.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gastelurrutia MA, Fernandez-Llimos F, Benrimoj SI, Castrillon CC, Faus MJ. Barriers for the implementation of cognitive services in Spanish community pharmacies. Aten Primaria. 2007;39(9):465–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gastelurrutia MA, Benrimoj SI, Castrillon CC, Casado de Amezua MJ, Fernandez-Llimos F, Faus MJ. Facilitators for practice change in Spanish community pharmacy. Pharm World Sci. 2009;31(1):32–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Driesen A, Verbeke K, Simoens S, Laekeman G. International trends in lifelong learning for pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ. 2007;71(3):52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    MacLaughlin EJ, Supernaw RB, Howard KA. Impact of distance learning using videoconferencing technology on student performance. Am J Pharm Educ. 2004;68(3):58.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    De Muth J, Bruskiewitz R. A comparison of the acceptability and effectiveness of two methods of distance education: CD-ROM and audio teleconferencing. Am J Pharm Educ. 2006;70(1):11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Moridani M, Chem DC. Asynchronous video streaming vs. synchronous videoconferencing for teaching a pharmacogenetic pharmacotherapy course. Am J Pharm Educ. 2007;71(1):16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fjortoft NF, Schwartz AH. Evaluation of a pharmacy continuing education program: long-term learning outcomes and changes in practice behaviors. Am J Pharm Educ. 2003;67(2):35.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Acad Med. 1990;65:s63–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Forsetlund L, Bjørndal A, Rashidian A, Jamtvedt G, O’Brien MA, Wolf F, Davis D, Odgaard-Jensen J, Oxman AD. Continuing education meetings and workshops: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;2:CD003030.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nimmo CM, Holland RW. Transitions in pharmacy practice, part 5: walking the tightrope of change. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57(1):64–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rogers EM. Diffusion of innovations. 5th ed. New York: Free Press; 2003. ISBN: 0-7432-2209-1.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    General Directorate of Pharmacy. Consensus on pharmaceutical care. Ars Pharm. 2001;42(3–4):221–41.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Aguas Y, De Miguel E, Fernandez-Llimos F. El seguimiento farmacoterapéutico como innovación en las farmacias comunitarias de Badajoz (España) [Pharmacotherapy follow-up as an innovation in community pharmacies of Badajoz (Spain)]. Seguimiento Farmacoterapeutico. 2005;3(1):10–6.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rethans JJ, van Leeuwen Y, Drop R, van der Vleuten C, Sturmans F. Competence and performance: two different concepts in the assessment of quality of medical care. Fam Pract. 1990;7(3):168–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elena Dualde
    • 1
  • Maria J. Faus
    • 2
  • Francisco J. Santonja
    • 3
  • Fernando Fernandez-Llimos
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Toxicology, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Pharmaceutical Care Research GroupUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  3. 3.Instituto de Matemática Multidisciplinar Universidad Politécnica de ValenciaValenciaSpain
  4. 4.Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences (iMed.UL), Department of Social Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations