Skip to main content
Log in

Medical doctors’ perceptions and expectations of the role of hospital pharmacists in Sudan

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Pharmacy World & Science Aims and scope Submit manuscript



To investigate medical practitioners’ perceptions, expectations and experience with the role of hospital-based pharmacists in Sudan.


Teaching hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan.


A self-administered, pre-tested, structured questionnaire was distributed to 300 randomly chosen medical practitioners of different grades and specialities in four teaching hospitals in Khartoum State. The questionnaire consisted of closed-ended questions.

Main outcome measures

The level of medical practitioners comfort to, and their expectations and experience of, a range of pharmacist roles and activities.


The response rate was 66.7%. One-half (50.0%; 95% CI: 42.9–57.2%) of respondents never or rarely had interaction with pharmacists with regard to patient’s medication, 36.9% (CI: 30.2–44.0%) and 13.1% (CI: 8.9–18.8%) had this type of contact once per week or once a day or more, respectively. Respondents were most comfortable with pharmacists: Detecting and preventing prescription errors (49.2%; CI: 42.0–56.5); monitoring outcomes of pharmacotherapeutic regimens and plans (45.9%; CI: 38.8–53.2); designing and monitoring pharmacotherapeutic regimens (43.4%; CI: 36.4–50.8) and suggesting use of prescription medications to physicians (40.3%; CI: 33.3–47.8). Respondents were least comfortable with pharmacists suggesting the use of certain prescription medications to patients (52.8% ‘uncomfortable’; CI: 45.6–59.9). Respondents’ expectations of pharmacists were positive for most domains.


Respondents appeared receptive to most statements regarding expectations of pharmacists, suggesting that many elements of patient-centred pharmaceutical care could be introduced with the co-operation of physicians. A key to extending the role of pharmacists in Sudan teaching hospitals should involve making pharmacists more accessible to doctors and patients, ideally, supported by an organised program of continuing professional development.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Schumock G, Michaud J. Re-engineering; an opportunity to advance clinical practice in a community hospital. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:1945–49.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Cowen DL. Changing relationship between pharmacists and physicians. Am J Hosp Pharm 1992;49:2715–21.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Rovers JP, Currie JD, Hagel HP, McDonough RP, Sobatka JL. A practice guide to pharmaceutical care. Washington, D.C: Published by American Pharmaceutical Association; 2003. ISBN 1-58212-049-8.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Paul L. Ranelli and June Biss. Physicians’ perception of communication with and responsibilities of pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc 2000;40(5):625–30.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Tanskanen P, Jakala J, Airaksinen M, et al. Physicians’ view on co-operation with community pharmacists in Finland. J Soc Adm Pharm 1997;14:220–9.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Plagakis J. Don’t call me, call the doc. Drug Trop 1997;141(11):67.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Mitchell JL. Building cooperation with physicians: an interview with Charles Fortner. Am Pharm 1990;NS30:24–6.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Martin S. In the physician’s office: an interview with W. Ray Burns. Am Pharm 1989;NS29:17–9.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Hirsch JD, Gagnon JP, Camp R. Value of pharmacy services: perceptions of consumers, physicians, and third party prescription plan administrators. Am Pharm 1990;NS30:20–5.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Herrier RN, Boyce RW. Why won’t physicians accept my advice? J Am Pharm Assoc 1996;NS36(4,9):224,547–8, 573–4.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Sardinah C. Physician groups embrace pharmacists: collaborations that work. J Manag Care Pharm 1997;3:526–30.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Haxby DG, Weart CW, Goodman BW Jr. Family practice physicians’ perceptions of the usefulness of drug therapy recommendations from clinical pharmacists. Am J Hosp Pharm 1988;45:834–7.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Kirking DM, Bickley SK, Wasserman ML. Physician opinion of pharmacist initiated change from injectable to oral administration of histamine H-2 receptor antagonists. Am J Hosp Pharm 1991;48:1722–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Campbell RK, Saulie BA. Providing pharmaceutical care in a physician office. J Am Pharm Assoc 1998;38:495–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Nesbit F, Chaplin DC, Edwards JA, et al. Counselling of patients by pharmacists. Blessing or curse? NC Med J 1995;56:115–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Sulick JA, Pathak DS. The perceived influence on clinical pharmacy services on physician prescribing behaviour: a matched-pair comparison of pharmacists and physicians. Pharmacotherapy 1996;16:1133–41.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. United Nations Development Program. The Human Development Report 2004. New York: UNDP, 2004.

  18. World Health Organization (2005). Country profiles-Sudan.

  19. Smith WE, Ray MD, Shannon DM. Physicians’ expectations of pharmacists. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2002;59:50–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Lobas NH, Lepinski PW, Woller TW. Satisfaction of physicians and nurses with clinical pharmacy services. Am J Hosp Pharm 1991;48:1189–90.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Ritchey FJ, Raney MR. Medical role-task boundary maintenance: physicians’ opinions on clinical pharmacy. Med Care 1981;19:90–103.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Ritchey FJ, Raney MR. Effect of exposure on physicians’ attitudes toward clinical pharmacy. Am J Hosp Pharm 1981;38:1459–63.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Bailie GR, Romeo B. New York State primary care physicians’ attitudes to community pharmacists’ clinical services. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:1437–41.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Matowe L, Abahussain EA, Al-Saffar N, et al. Physicians’ perceptions and expectations of pharmacists’ professional duties in government hospitals in Kuwait. Med Princ Pract 2006;15:185–9.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Spencer JA, Edwards C. Pharmacy beyond the dispensary: general practitioners’ views. BMJ 1992;304:1670–2.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


We appreciate the hard work in data collection that was achieved by pharmacists Hossam Himad and Khansa Abdelhamid without whose effort the study would not have been completed. The data collection was conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan. Data analysis and manuscript writing were undertaken in Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Abdelmoneim Awad.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Awad, A., Matowe, L. & Capps, P. Medical doctors’ perceptions and expectations of the role of hospital pharmacists in Sudan. Pharm World Sci 29, 557–564 (2007).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: