The main purposes of this article are to describe an unprecedented phenomenon in which significant amount of a shoulder peak impurity was observed during normal non-reducing capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) analysis of a recombinant fusion protein X, and to evaluate the root cause for this phenomenon.
A series of experiments were conducted to study the nature of this degradation. Effects of iodoacetamide (IAM), heating temperature, duration, and SDS on the formation of this specific impurity were evaluated using a variety of characterization techniques.
The formation of the impurity as observed in CE-SDS was actually due to alkylation of lysine and serine residues with IAM, as confirmed by peptide mapping and LC-MS/MS, which increased the molecular weight and therefore decreased the electrophoretic mobility. The amount of impurity was also strongly dependent on sample preparation conditions including the presence or absence of SDS.
Our study clearly suggested that even though IAM has been used extensively as an alkylation reagent in the traditional non-reducing CE-SDS analysis of monoclonal antibodies and other proteins, alkylation with IAM could potentially lead to additional impurity peak, and therefore complicating analysis. Therefore, before performing CE-SDS and other analyses, the effects of sample preparation procedures on analytical results must be evaluated. For protein X, IAM should be excluded for CE-SDS analysis.
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Capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate
Imaged capillary isoelectric focusing
Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry
Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography
Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography
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Shen, BB., Zhang, Z., Yuan, JJ. et al. Formation of an Unprecedented Impurity during CE-SDS Analysis of a Recombinant Protein. Pharm Res 37, 228 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-020-02947-0
- peptide mapping
- sample preparation