Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles containing a wide array of biologically active components. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomes serve as an important vehicle for extracellular communication and exert systemic effects on the physiology of organisms. Adipose tissues (ATs) play a key role in balancing systemic energy homeostasis as a central hub for fatty acid metabolism. At the same time, proper endocrine function of ATs has also been shown to be crucial for regulating physiological and metabolic health. The endocrine function of ATs is partially mediated by AT-derived exosomes that regulate metabolic homeostasis, such as insulin signaling, lipolysis, and inflammation. During the pathogenesis of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer, exosomes shed by the resident cells in ATs may also have a role in regulating the progression of these diseases along with associated pathologies. In this review, we summarize the contents of AT-derived exosomes and their effects on various cell populations along with possible underlying molecular mechanisms. We further discuss the potential applications of exosomes as a drug delivery tool and therapeutic target.
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Adipose-derived stem cells
Protein kinase B
AMP-activated protein kinase
Apoptotic protease activating factor
Adipose tissue derived exosomes
Brown adipose tissue
Branched-chain amino acid transaminase, FABP, fatty acid binding protein
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand
CCAAT/ enhancer-binding protein
Delta like canonical Notch ligand
Extracellular signal regulated kinase
F-Box and WD repeat domain containing
Fibroblast growth factor
Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein
Gestational diabetes mellitus, aP, adipocyte protein
Hormone sensitive lipase
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells
Insulin-like growth factor receptor
Insulin receptor substrate
Metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript
Mitogen-activated protein kinase
Mouse double minute homolog
Mammalian target of rapamycin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Bcl, B cell lymphoma
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
PR domain containing
Pumilio RNA binding family member
Retinal noncoding RNA3
Stromal cell derived factor
Signal transducer and activator of transcription
Transforming growth factor
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases
Tumor necrosis factor
Vascular endothelial growth factor
White adipose tissue
WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein, HIF, hypoxia induced factor
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND DISCLOSURES
This work was partially supported by grants from the National Cancer Institute of US National Institutes of Health (R01CA212609), and Purdue University Center for Cancer Research (P30CA023168).
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Guest Editors: Meng Deng and Shihuan Kuang
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Quan, M., Kuang, S. Exosomal Secretion of Adipose Tissue during Various Physiological States. Pharm Res 37, 221 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-020-02941-6
- extracellular vesicles
- drug delivery