Changes of Blood-Brain Barrier and Brain Parenchymal Protein Expression Levels of Mice under Different Insulin-Resistance Conditions Induced by High-Fat Diet



The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain parenchymal protein expression due to type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) by using SWATH-based quantitative proteomics.


Mice were fed a HFD for 2 or 10 weeks, and then SWATH-based quantitative proteomic analysis, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and functional transport studies were performed.


In brain capillaries, expression levels of BBB transporters (Glut1, P-glycoprotein) and tight-junction proteins (claudin-5, occludin) were significantly reduced in HFD mice at 2 weeks, but recovered to the levels in the normal diet (ND) group at 10 weeks. P-glycoprotein function at the BBB was reduced at 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, neurofilament, which is important for neuronal function, was decreased in HFD mice at 2 weeks, but recovered at 10 weeks.


Our results suggest that changes in the status of insulin resistance influence expression of BBB transporters, which in turn may alter the expression of cognitive function-related proteins.

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Amyloid β peptide


Alzheimer’s disease


Blood-brain barrier


Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase


Central nervous system


Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase


Glucose transporter 1


human cerebral vascular endothelial cell


High-fat diet


Information-dependent acquisition


Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1


Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1


Monocarboxylate transporter 1


Multidrug resistance protein 1a


Normal diet


Phosphate buffered saline


Post synaptic density


Phase-transfer surfactant


Reactive oxygen species


Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra


Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Tricarboxylic acid


Transferrin receptor


Tumor necrosis factor-alpha


Vascular endothelial growth factor


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Acknowledgments and Disclosures

We are grateful for partial financial support in the form of three Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (15H01562), as well as a grant from the Mochida Memorial Foundation for Medical and Pharmaceutical Research. Ohtsuki S is a full professor at Kumamoto University and is also a director of Proteomedix Frontiers. This study was not supported by the company, and his position at the company did not influence the design of the study, the collection of the data, the analysis or interpretation of the data, the decision to submit the manuscript for publication, or the writing of the manuscript, and did not present any financial conflicts. The other authors declare no competing interests.

Author information




All authors, Ogata S, Ito S, Masuda T and Ohtsuki S, contributed to study design and manuscript revision. Ogata S conducted experiments and performed data analysis. Ogata S, Ito S. and Ohtsuki S wrote the manuscript. All authors provided final approval of the submitted manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sumio Ohtsuki.

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Table S4

Identified proteins in brain capillary fraction of mice fed with HFD for 2 weeks (A) or 10 weeks (B) by SWATH-MS. (XLSX 275 kb)

Table S5

Identified proteins in cerebral cortex cytosol (A, C) or plasma membrane (B, D) fraction of mice fed with HFD for 2 weeks (A, B) or 10 weeks (C, D) by SWATH-MS. (XLSX 980 kb)

Table S6

Identified proteins in hippocampus cytosol (A, C) or plasma membrane (B, D) fraction of mice fed with HFD for 2 weeks (A, B) or 10 weeks (C, D) by SWATH-MS. (XLSX 936 kb)

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Ogata, S., Ito, S., Masuda, T. et al. Changes of Blood-Brain Barrier and Brain Parenchymal Protein Expression Levels of Mice under Different Insulin-Resistance Conditions Induced by High-Fat Diet. Pharm Res 36, 141 (2019).

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Key Words

  • Blood-brain barrier
  • central nervous system
  • insulin resistance
  • quantitative proteomics
  • type II diabetes mellitus