Pharmaceutical Research

, 36:54 | Cite as

Ophthalmic Drug Discovery and Development: Regulatory Aspects of Patient Focused Drug Development in Ophthalmology

  • Cheryl L. Rowe-RendlemanEmail author
Expert Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Ophthalmic Drug Discovery and Development


In 2009, members of the ophthalmic research community held a joint meeting with members of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Eye Institute (NEI) to define and describe the types of patient-focused drug development (PFDD) tools used in ophthalmology. Since then numerous reports have been published which indicate that many of the questionnaires used for patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in ophthalmic clinical development lack rigor and reliability according to modern methods. In 2017, the FDA began development of a series of four methodological guidances for sponsors of clinical trials on the significance of PFDD. The new guidances delineate the FDA’s thinking and commitments under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act to implement a more structured approach to the assessment of risks and benefits in clinical trials. In these guidances, the FDA provides steps that drug and device manufacturers should follow, not only to obtain, but also to develop reliable and validated tools that measure patients’ experience in clinical trials. Subsequent efforts have resulted in the development and validation of PROs specifically for ophthalmology. The purpose of this paper is to assesses the PROs currently used in ophthalmology and to provide practical strategies for incorporating them into clinical trials.

Key Words

clinical trials FDA patient-reported outcomes PROMs PROs 



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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ophthalmic Medical and Research ConsultingOmar Consulting Group, LLCPrinceton JunctionUSA

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