Pharmaceutical Research

, 36:25 | Cite as

Glaucoma - Next Generation Therapeutics: Impossible to Possible

  • Christopher M. Adams
  • Rebecca Stacy
  • Nalini Rangaswamy
  • Chad Bigelow
  • Cynthia L. Grosskreutz
  • Ganesh PrasannaEmail author
Expert Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Ophthalmic Drug Discovery and Development


The future of next generation therapeutics for glaucoma is strong. The recent approval of two novel intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering drugs with distinct mechanisms of action is the first in over 20 years. However, these are still being administered as topical drops. Efforts are underway to increase patient compliance and greater therapeutic benefits with the development of sustained delivery technologies. Furthermore, innovations from biologics- and gene therapy-based therapeutics are being developed in the context of disease modification, which are expected to lead to more permanent therapies for patients. Neuroprotection, including the preservation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerve is another area that is actively being explored for therapeutic options. With improvements in imaging technologies and determination of new surrogate clinical endpoints, the therapeutic potential for translation of neuroprotectants is coming close to clinical realization. This review summarizes the aforementioned topics and other related aspects.

Key words

clinical trials glaucoma IOP lowering neuroprotection sustained delivery imaging 



All animal-related procedures were conducted according to protocols approved by Novartis Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in compliance with Animal Welfare Act regulations and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and were in adherence to the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. Authors wish to thank Chenying Guo for mRNA expression data for PTGFR, EP2 and EP4 in rabbit ocular tissues. All authors are employees of Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research (NIBR) and own Novartis stock. Relevant studies were performed with funding from NIBR.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Global Discovery ChemistryNovartis Institutes for Biomedical Research (NIBR),CambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Translational MedicineOphthalmology, NIBRCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.Ophthalmology ResearchNovartis Institutes for Biomedical ResearchCambridgeUSA

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