Genetic variation can affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and contribute to variability between individuals in response to medications. Specifically, differences in allele frequencies among individuals and ethnic groups have been associated with variation in their propensity to develop drug hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs). This article reviews the current knowledge on the genetic background of HSRs and its relevance to Jewish and Arab populations. The focus is on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and haplotypes as predictive markers of HSRs (“immunopharmacogenetics”), but other genes and alleles are described as well. Also discussed is the translation of the pharmacogenetic information to practice recommendations.
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Drug-induced liver injury
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms
European Medicines Agency
Food and Drug Administration
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase
Greater Middle East
Human leukocyte antigen
Major histocompatibility complex
National Marrow Donor Program
Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions
Toxic epidermal necrolysis
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Acknowledgments and Disclosures
This work was supported by funding from the Hebrew University’s School of Pharmacy. Sara Eyal is affiliated with the David R. Bloom Centre for Pharmacy and Dr. Adolf and Klara Brettler Center at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
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Aboukaoud, M., Israel, S., Brautbar, C. et al. Genetic Basis of Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions to Drugs in Jewish and Arab Populations. Pharm Res 35, 211 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-018-2472-8
- human leukocyte antigens
- hypersensitivity reactions