Simulation of Stimuli-Responsive and Stoichiometrically Controlled Release Rate of Doxorubicin from Liposomes in Tumor Interstitial Fluid

  • Eiichi Yamamoto
  • Kenji Hyodo
  • Takuya Suzuki
  • Hiroshi Ishihara
  • Hiroshi Kikuchi
  • Masaru Kato
Research Paper



To simulate the stimuli-responsive and stoichiometrically controlled doxorubicin (DOX) release from liposomes in in vivo tumor interstitial fluid (TIF), the effect of ammonia concentration and pH on the DOX release from liposomes in human plasma at 37°C was quantitatively evaluated in vitro and the release rate was calculated as a function of ammonia concentration and pH.


Human plasma samples spiked with DOX-loaded PEGylated liposomes (PLD) or Doxil®, containing ammonia (0.3–50 mM) at different pH values, were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. After incubation, the concentration of encapsulated DOX in the samples was determined by validated solid-phase extraction (SPE)-SPE-high performance liquid chromatography.


Accelerated DOX release (%) from liposomes was observed as the increase of ammonia concentration and pH of the matrix, and the decrease of encapsulated DOX concentration. The release rate was expressed as a function of the ammonia concentration and pH by using Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.


The DOX release from PLD in TIF was expressed as a function ammonia concentration and pH at various DOX concentrations. Further, it was found that the DOX release from liposomes in a simulated TIF was more than 15 times higher than in normal plasma.


Doxil® drug release liposomes tumor interstitial fluid simulation 



Drug delivery system




Fluorescence detection


High performance liquid chromatography


Hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine


In vitro and in vivo correlation




PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin


Solid-phase extraction


Tumor interstitial fluid




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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Formulation Research, Pharmaceutical Science & Technology Core Function Unit, Eisai Product Creation SystemsEisai Co. Ltd.IbarakiJapan
  2. 2.Tsukuba Research LaboratoriesEisai Co. Ltd.IbarakiJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Pharmaceutical SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Bioanalytical Chemistry, School of PharmacyShowa UniversityTokyoJapan

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