BITC and S-Carvone Restrain High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Ameliorate Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance
- 371 Downloads
To investigate the preventative activity of benzyl isothiocyante and S-carvone against high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic complications.
Ten-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed a high-fat diet and injected intraperitoneally twice per week with benzyl isothiocyante, S-carvone, or vehicle for 8 weeks. The body weight, food intake, and body composition were monitored, and glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed at the end of the experiment. Serum and tissue samples were studied using serum biochemistry, histological, and gene expression analysis to define the effects of benzyl isothiocyante and S-carvone treatments on lipid and glucose metabolism and inflammatory responses.
Benzyl isothiocyante and S-carvone blocked high-fat diet-induced weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and insulin resistance. The beneficial effects were found to be associated with an improvement of expression of macrophage marker genes in white adipose tissue, including F4/80, Cd11b, Cd11c, Cd206, and Tnf-α, and reduced expression of genes (Pparγ2, Scd1, Cd36) responsible for lipid synthesis and transport in the liver.
Benzyl isothiocyante and S-carvone block high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolism disorders and can be considered for management of the obesity epidemic that affects approximately 36% of adults and 17% of children in the USA.
Key wordsObesity Inflammation BITC S-carvone Antioxidant
Area under the curve
Brown adipose tissue
Epididymal white adipose tissues
Fatty acid synthase
Free fatty acid
Glucose tolerance test
Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance
Insulin tolerance test
Inguinal white adipose tissues
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ
Perirenal white adipose tissues
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein
Tumor necrosis factor α
- 1.Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States. NCHS Data Brief. 2011-2014;2015:1–8.Google Scholar
- 4.Monteiro R, Azevedo I. Chronic inflammation in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Mediat Inflamm. 2010;2010Google Scholar
- 5.Choe SS, Huh JY, Hwang IJ, Kim JI, Kim JB. Adipose tissue remodeling: its role in energy metabolism and metabolic disorders. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2016;7:30.Google Scholar
- 7.Le Lay S, Simard G, Martinez MC, Andriantsitohaina R. Oxidative stress and metabolic pathologies: from an adipocentric point of view. Oxidative Med Cell Longev. 2014;2014:908539.Google Scholar
- 17.Rajeshwari T, Raja B. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect of D-carvone in hypertensive rats. In vivo and in vitro study. Int Lett Nat Sci. 2015;35:6–12.Google Scholar
- 19.Vinothkumar R, Sudha M, Viswanathan P, Kabalimoorthy J, Balasubramanian T, Nalini N. Modulating effect of d-carvone on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced pre-neoplastic lesions, oxidative stress and biotransforming enzymes, in an experimental model of rat colon carcinogenesis. Cell Prolif. 2013;46:705–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.de Cassia da Silveira e Sa R, Andrade LN, de Sousa DP. A review on anti-inflammatory activity of monoterpenes. Molecules. 2013; 18: 1227–54.Google Scholar
- 30.Alsanea S, Gao M, Liu D. Phloretin prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity and improves metabolic homeostasis. AAPS J. 2017;19:797–805.Google Scholar
- 33.Kotronen A, Seppanen-Laakso T, Westerbacka J, Kiviluoto T, Arola J, Ruskeepaa AL, et al. Hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 activity and diacylglycerol but not ceramide concentrations are increased in the nonalcoholic human fatty liver. Diabetes. 2009;58:203–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar