To explore the application of scanning ion occlusion sensing (SIOS) as a novel technology for characterization of nanoparticles.
Liposomes were employed as model nanoparticles. The size distribution of the liposomes was measured by both SIOS and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Particle number concentration was determined based on particle translocation rate. The ability of SIOS and DLS to resolve bimodal samples was evaluated by measuring a mixture of 217 and 355 nm standard nanoparticles. Opsonization of liposomes by plasma was also studied using SIOS.
SIOS was shown to measure the size of different liposomes with higher sensitivity than DLS and it requires a smaller sample volume than DLS. With appropriate calibration, SIOS could be used to determine particle number concentrations. In comparison, SIOS analysis of the mixture showed accurate resolution of the population as a bimodal distribution over a wide range of number ratios of the particles. SIOS could detect plasma opsonization of liposomes by demonstrating a increase in particle size and also changes in the particle translocation rate.
SIOS is a useful technology for nanoparticle characterization. It shows some advantages over DLS and is clearly a useful tool for the study of nanoparticle drug delivery systems.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bootz A, Vogel V, Schubert D, Kreuter J. Comparison of scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation for the sizing of poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2004;57:369–75.
Krauel K, Girvan L, Hook S, Rades T. Characterisation of colloidal drug delivery systems from the naked eye to Cryo-FESEM. Micron. 2007;38:796–803.
Husain A, Hamielec AE, Vlachopoulos J. Particle size analysis using size exclusion chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography (GPC). Am Chem Soc. 1980;138:47–75.
Xu X, Caswell KK, Tucker E, Kabisatpathy S, Brodhacker KL, Scrivens WA. Size and shape separation of gold nanoparticles with preparative gel electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1167:35–41.
Liu L. Application of ultrasound spectroscopy for nanoparticle sizing in high concentration suspensions: A factor analysis on the effects of concentration and frequency. Chem Eng Sci. 2009;64:5036–42.
Filipe V, Hawe A, Jiskoot W. Critical evaluation of nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) by NanoSight for the measurement of nanoparticles and protein aggregates. Pharm Res. 2010;27:796–810.
Henriquez RR, Ito T, Sun L, Crooks RM. The resurgence of Coulter counting for analyzing nanoscale objects. Analyst. 2004;129:478–82.
Sowerby SJ, Broom MF, Petersen GB. Dynamically resizable nanometre-scale apertures for molecular sensing. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2007;123:325–30.
Willmott GR, Moore PW. Reversible mechanical actuation of elastomeric nanopores. Nanotechnology. 2008;19:475504.
Willmott GR, Vogel R, Yu SSC, Groenewegen LG, Roberts GS, Kozak D, et al. Use of tunable nanopore blockade rates to investigate colloidal dispersions. J Phys.: Condens Matter. 2010;22:454116.
Vogel R, Willmott G, Kozak D, Roberts GS, Anderson W, Groenewegen L, et al. Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor. Anal Chem. 2011;83:3499–3506.
Roberts GS, Kozak D, Anderson W, Broom MF, Vogel R, Trau M. Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: Scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy. Small. 2010;6:2653–8.
Torchilin VP. Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers. Nat Rev Drug Discovery. 2005;4:145–60.
Kozak D, Anderson W, Vogel R, Trau M. Advances in resistive pulse sensors: devices bridging the void between molecular and microscopic detection. Nano Today. 2011;6:531–45.
Mayer LD, Hope MJ, Cullis PR. Vesicles of variable sizes produced by a rapid extrusion procedure. BBA - Biomembranes. 1986;858:161–8.
Hunter DG, Frisken BJ. Effect of extrusion pressure and lipid properties on the size and polydispersity of lipid vesicles. Biophys J. 1998;74:2996–3002.
Shekunov BY, Chattopadhyay P, Tong HHY, Chow AHL. Particle size analysis in pharmaceutics: principles, methods and applications. Pharm Res. 2007;24:203–27.
Roberts GS, Yu S, Zeng Q, Chan LCL, Anderson W, Colby AH, et al. Tunable pores for measuring concentrations of synthetic and biological nanoparticle dispersions. Biosens Bioelectron. 2012;31:17–25.
Epstein H, Afergan E, Moise T, Richter Y, Rudich Y, Golomb G. Number-concentration of nanoparticles in liposomal and polymeric multiparticulate preparations: empirical and calculation methods. Biomaterials. 2006;27:651–9.
Tscharnuter W. Photon correlation spectroscopy in particle sizing. In: Meyers RA, editor. Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2000. p. 5469–85.
Frantzen CB, Ingebrigtsen L, Skar M, Brandl M. Assessing the accuracy of routine photon correlation spectroscopy analysis of heterogeneous size distributions. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2003;4:62–70.
Karmali PP, Simberg D. Interactions of nanoparticles with plasma proteins: Implication on clearance and toxicity of drug delivery systems. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. 2011;8:343–57.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND DISCLOSURES
The research was conducted during the tenure of a Health Sciences Career Development Award from the University of Otago to Lin Yang. The authors report no conflicts of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Yang, L., Broom, M.F. & Tucker, I.G. Characterization of a Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery System Using Scanning Ion Occlusion Sensing. Pharm Res 29, 2578–2586 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-012-0788-3