Multiple Berry Types Prevent N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-Induced Esophageal Cancer in Rats

An Erratum to this article was published on 18 June 2010

ABSTRACT

Purpose

The present study compared the ability of different berry types to prevent chemically-induced tumorigenesis in the rat esophagus. We also determined if berries influence the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum of carcinogen-treated rats.

Methods

Rats were treated with the carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) for 5 weeks, then placed on diets containing 5% of either black or red raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, noni, açaí or wolfberry until the end of the study. The effects of the berries on tumor incidence, multiplicity and size were determined, as well as their effects on the levels of selected inflammatory cytokines in serum.

Results

All berry types were about equally effective in inhibiting NMBA-induced tumorigenesis in the rat esophagus. They also reduced the levels of the serum cytokines, interleukin 5 (IL-5) and GRO/KC, the rat homologue for human interleukin-8 (IL-8), and this was associated with increased serum antioxidant capacity.

Conclusions

Seven berry types were about equally capable of inhibiting tumor progression in the rat esophagus in spite of known differences in levels of anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Serum levels of IL-5 and GRO/KC (IL-8) may be predictive of the inhibitory effect of chemopreventive agents on rat esophageal carcinogenesis.

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Abbreviations

AP-1:

Activator protein-1

AIN-76A:

American Institute of Nutrition-76A

BRBs:

black raspberries

BBs:

blueberries

DMSO:

dimethylsulfoxide

EGF:

epidermal growth factor

IL-8:

GRO/KC

IFNγ:

interferon-gamma

IL:

interleukin

NMBA:

N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine

RRBs:

red raspberries

STRWs:

strawberries

TPA:

12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate

TNF-α:

tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank Mr. Dale Stokes of the Stokes Raspberry Farm, Wilmington, OH for provision of the Jewel variety of black raspberries and WGO2 variety of red raspberries; Erin Theony and the Washington State Raspberry Commission for provision of the Meeker variety of red raspberries; Watershed Foods, Gridley, IL for provision of the Reveille variety of blueberries; Driscoll Farms of Watsonville, CA for provision of the Commander variety of strawberries; and Dr. William J. Keller of Nature’s Sunshine, Inc., Spanish Fork, UT 84660 for the supply of noni, açaí and wolfberries. This study was supported by NCI R01 grant CA103180 and U.S.D.A. grant 38903-19245 through the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.

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Correspondence to Gary D. Stoner.

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An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0194-7

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Stoner, G.D., Wang, LS., Seguin, C. et al. Multiple Berry Types Prevent N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-Induced Esophageal Cancer in Rats. Pharm Res 27, 1138–1145 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0102-1

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KEY WORDS

  • berries
  • chemoprevention
  • esophagus
  • rat