Multiple Berry Types Prevent N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-Induced Esophageal Cancer in Rats
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The present study compared the ability of different berry types to prevent chemically-induced tumorigenesis in the rat esophagus. We also determined if berries influence the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum of carcinogen-treated rats.
Rats were treated with the carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) for 5 weeks, then placed on diets containing 5% of either black or red raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, noni, açaí or wolfberry until the end of the study. The effects of the berries on tumor incidence, multiplicity and size were determined, as well as their effects on the levels of selected inflammatory cytokines in serum.
All berry types were about equally effective in inhibiting NMBA-induced tumorigenesis in the rat esophagus. They also reduced the levels of the serum cytokines, interleukin 5 (IL-5) and GRO/KC, the rat homologue for human interleukin-8 (IL-8), and this was associated with increased serum antioxidant capacity.
Seven berry types were about equally capable of inhibiting tumor progression in the rat esophagus in spite of known differences in levels of anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Serum levels of IL-5 and GRO/KC (IL-8) may be predictive of the inhibitory effect of chemopreventive agents on rat esophageal carcinogenesis.
KEY WORDSberries chemoprevention esophagus rat
American Institute of Nutrition-76A
epidermal growth factor
tumor necrosis factor-alpha
We thank Mr. Dale Stokes of the Stokes Raspberry Farm, Wilmington, OH for provision of the Jewel variety of black raspberries and WGO2 variety of red raspberries; Erin Theony and the Washington State Raspberry Commission for provision of the Meeker variety of red raspberries; Watershed Foods, Gridley, IL for provision of the Reveille variety of blueberries; Driscoll Farms of Watsonville, CA for provision of the Commander variety of strawberries; and Dr. William J. Keller of Nature’s Sunshine, Inc., Spanish Fork, UT 84660 for the supply of noni, açaí and wolfberries. This study was supported by NCI R01 grant CA103180 and U.S.D.A. grant 38903-19245 through the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.
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