Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 22, Issue 12, pp 2115–2120 | Cite as

ATP-Loaded Liposomes Effectively Protect the Myocardium in Rabbits with an Acute Experimental Myocardial Infarction

  • Daya D. Verma
  • William C. Hartner
  • Tatayana S. Levchenko
  • Eugene A. Bernstein
  • Vladimir P. TorchilinEmail author
Research Paper


We assessed whether the infusion of ATP-loaded liposomes (ATP-L) can limit the fraction of the irreversibly damaged myocardium in rabbits with an experimental myocardial infarction.


ATP-L, empty liposomes (EL), or Krebs–Henseleit (KH) buffer were administered by intracoronary infusion, followed by 30 min of occlusion and 3 h of reperfusion. Unisperse Blue dye was used to demarcate the net size of the occlusion-induced ischemic zone (area at risk) and nitroblue tetrazolium staining was used to detect the final fraction of the irreversibly damaged myocardium within the total area at risk.


The total size of the area at risk in all experimental animals was approx. 20% wt. of the left ventricle. The final irreversible damage in ATP-L-treated animals was only ca. 30% of the total area at risk as compared with ca. 60% in the group treated with EL (p < 0.009) and ca. 70% in the KH buffer-treated group (p < 0.003).


ATP-L effectively protected the ischemic heart muscle in rabbits with an experimental myocardial infarction as evidenced by a significantly decreased fraction of the irreversibly damaged heart within the total area at risk. ATP-L may provide an effective exogenous source of the ATP in vivo to protect ischemically damaged cells.

Key Words

ATP experimental myocardial infarction heart muscle ischemia liposomes mechanical functions rabbits reperfusion 







liposomes loaded with ATP




empty liposomes


enhanced permeability and retention




nitroblue tetrazolium


1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000]


unispearse blue dye



This study was supported by the NIH grant RO1 HL55519 to Vladimir P. Torchilin. The authors acknowledge the advice and support by Dr. B.-A. Khaw.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daya D. Verma
    • 1
  • William C. Hartner
    • 1
  • Tatayana S. Levchenko
    • 1
  • Eugene A. Bernstein
    • 1
  • Vladimir P. Torchilin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA

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