Advertisement

Assessing self-regulated learning in higher education: a systematic literature review of self-report instruments

  • Anne RothEmail author
  • Sabine Ogrin
  • Bernhard Schmitz
Article

Abstract

The growing interest in the field of learning strategies has led to an increasing number of studies and, with that, the development of numerous instruments to measure the use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies. Due to the complexity of this research field, the types of assessment methods are diverse. For this reason, we conducted a systematic review of self-report instruments that measure SRL in higher education and highlight their main characteristics. In doing so, we applied the general principles of systematic reviewing—we conducted a systematic search of established psychological and educational databases with previously defined inclusion criteria and applied a multistage filtering process. In an additional step, we examined a subsample of nine established instruments in terms of their implementation characteristics, psychometric properties, and additional characteristics. The results illustrate the distribution of self-report instruments used in higher education and point to a growing use of course- or domain-specific questionnaires over the past decades as well as a lack of emotional and motivational regulation scales.

Keywords

Self-regulated learning Self-report Systematic review Higher education 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve the quality of the paper.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethical standards

This research was supported by grants from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. The research did not involve any human participants or animals.

Funding

This research was supported by grants from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research to Bernhard Schmitz (01 PK11020B) for the collaborative research project “PRO-SRL—Product- and process-oriented modeling and assessment of self-regulation competencies in tertiary education”.

References

  1. Artelt, C. (2000a). Strategisches Lernen [Strategically learning]. Münster, Germany: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  2. Artelt, C. (2000b). Wie prädiktiv sind retrospektive Selbstberichte über den Gebrauch von Lernstrategien für strategisches Lernen? [How predictive are self-reported strategies for their actual use?]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 14(2/3), 72–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azevedo, R., Cromley, J. G., & Seibert, D. (2004a). Does adaptive scaffolding facilitate students’ ability to regulate their learning with hypermedia? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 344–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azevedo, R., Guthrie, J. T., & Seibert, D. (2004b). The role of self-regulated learning in fostering students’ conceptual understanding of complex systems with hypermedia. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 30(1), 87–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnard, L., Paton, V. O., & Lan, W. Y. (2008). Online self-regulatory learning behaviors as a mediator in the relationship between online course perceptions with achievement. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(2), 1–11.Google Scholar
  6. Barnard-Brak, L., Lan, W. Y., & Paton, V. O. (2010). Profiles in self-regulated learning in the online learning environment. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11, 61–79.Google Scholar
  7. Bartholomew, K., Henderson, A. J. Z., & Marcia, J. E. (2000). Coded semi-structured interviews in social psychological research. In H. T. Reis & C. M. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in social psychology (pp. 286–312). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bembenutty, H., & Karabenick, S. A. (1998). Academic delay of gratification. Learning and Individual Differences, 10(4), 329–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boekaerts, M. (1999). Self-regulated learning: where we are today. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 445–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boekaerts, M., & Cascallar, E. (2006). How far have we moved toward the integration of theory and practice in self-regulation? Educational Psychology Review, 18(3), 199–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boekaerts, M., & Corno, L. (2005). Self-regulation in the classroom: a perspective on assessment and intervention. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54, 199–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bowling, A. (2005). Mode of questionnaire administration can have serious effects on data quality. Journal of Public Health, 27(3), 281–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Branch, J. L. (2000). Investigating the information-seeking processes of adolescents: the value of using think alouds and think afters. Library & Information Science Research, 22(4), 371–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Busato, V. V., Prins, F. J., Elshout, J. J., & Hamaker, C. (1998). Learning styles: a cross‐sectional and longitudinal study in higher education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68(3), 427–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Çalişkan, S., & Selçuk, G. (2010). Pre-service teachers’ use of self-regulation strategies in physics problem solving: effects of gender and academic achievement. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 5(12), 1926–1938.Google Scholar
  16. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Desoete, A., Roeyers, H., & De Clercq, A. (2003). Can offline metacognition enhance mathematical problem solving? Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 188–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dinsmore, D. L., Alexander, P. A., & Loughlin, S. M. (2008). Focusing the conceptual lens on metacognition, self-regulation, and self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20(4), 391–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dresel, M., Schmitz, B., Schober, B., Spiel, C., Ziegler, A., Engelschalk, T., Steuer, G. (2014). Competencies for successful self-regulated learning in higher education: Structural model and empirical evidence from expert interviews. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  20. Entwistle, N., Tait, H., & McCune, V. (2000). Patterns of response to approaches to studying inventory across contrasting groups and contexts. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 15, 33–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1980). Verbal reports as data. Psychological Review, 87, 215–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Floden, R. E. (1981). The logic of information-processing psychology in education. In D. C. Berliner (Ed.), Review of research in education (Vol. 9, pp. 75–109). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  23. Garavalia, L. S., & Gredler, M. E. (2002). Prior achievement, aptitude, and use of learning strategies as predictors of college student achievement. College Student Journal, 36(4), 616–625.Google Scholar
  24. Gredler, M. E., & Schwartz, L. S. (1997). Factorial structure of the self-efficacy for self-regulated learning scale. Psychological Reports, 81, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Greene, J. A., Hutchison, L. A., Costa, L. J., & Crompton, H. (2012). Investigating how college students’ task definitions and plans relate to self-regulated learning processing and understanding of a complex science topic. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37, 307–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hadwin, A. F., Winne, P. H., Stockley, D. B., Nesbit, J. C., & Woszczyna, C. (2001). Context moderates learners’ self-reports about how they study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 39(3), 477–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hodges, C. B. (2009). Self-regulation of learners in an asynchronous university math course. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(2), 233–237.Google Scholar
  28. Hong, E. (1998). Differential stability of state and trait self-regulation in academic performance. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(3), 148–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Humphrey, N., Kalambouka, A., Wigelsworth, M., Lendrum, A., Deighton, J., & Wolpert, M. (2011). Measures of social and emotional skills for children and young people: a systematic review. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 71, 617–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jamieson-Noel, D., & Winne, P. H. (2003). Comparing self-reports to traces of studying behavior as representations of students’ studying and achievement. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 17(3), 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kitsantas, A. (2002). Test preparation and performance: a self-regulatory analysis. Journal of Experimental Education, 70(2), 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kitsantas, A., Kitsantas, P., & Kitsantas, T. (2012). Assessing college student interest in math and/or computer science in across-national sample using classification and regression trees. The International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 11(2), 45–62.Google Scholar
  33. Kitsantas, A., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2009). College students’ homework and academic achievement: the mediating role of self-regulatory beliefs. Metacognition and Learning, 4(2), 97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klug, J., Jöstl, G., Pichler, M., Schober, B., Spiel, C., Dresel, M., Schmitz, B., & Ziegler, A. (2014). The PRO SRL Project—Assessing University Students’ SRL-Competencies in a multi-method-multi-informant approach. Madrid, Spain: Paper presented at the EARLI SIG 1 Meeting.Google Scholar
  35. Klug, J., Ogrin, S., Keller, S., Ihringer, A., & Schmitz, B. (2011). A plea for self-regulated learning as a process: modelling, measuring and intervening. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 53, 51–72.Google Scholar
  36. Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning. New York: Association Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kurbanoglu, S. S. (2003). Self-efficacy: a concept closely linked to information literacy and lifelong learning. Journal of Documentation, 59(6), 635–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lawanto, O., Butler, D., Cartier, S. C., Santoso, H. B., Goodridge, W., Lawanto, K. N., & Clark, D. (2013). Pattern of task interpretation and self-regulated learning strategies of high school students and college freshmen during an engineering design project. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations & Research, 14(4), 15–27.Google Scholar
  39. Levesque, C., Zuehlke, A. N., Stanek, L. R., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Autonomy and competence in German and American university students: a comparative study based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lew, M. D., & Schmidt, H. G. (2011). Self-reflection and academic performance: is there a relationship? Advances in Health Sciences Education, 16(4), 529–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ley, K., & Young, D. B. (1998). Self-regulation behaviors in underprepared (developmental) and regular admission college students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23(1), 42–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lompscher, J. (1996). Erfassung von Lernstrategien auf der Reflexionsebene [Assessment of learning strategies on the reflection level]. Empirische Pädagogik, 10, 245–275.Google Scholar
  43. Lonka, K., Olkinuora, E., & Mäkinen, J. (2004). Aspects and prospects of measuring studying and learning in higher education. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 301–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lopez, E. J., Nandagopal, K., Shavelson, R. J., Szu, E., & Penn, J. (2013). Self-regulated learning study strategies and academic performance in undergraduate organic chemistry: an investigation examining ethnically diverse students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 50, 660–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Loyens, S. M., Magda, J., & Rikers, R. M. (2008). Self-directed learning in problem-based learning and its relationships with self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20(4), 411–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Magno, C. (2009a). Developing and assessing self-regulated learning. The Assessment Handbook: Continuing Education Program, 1, 26–42.Google Scholar
  47. Magno, C. (2009b). Self-regulation and approaches to learning in English composition writing. TESOL Journal, 1, 1–16.Google Scholar
  48. Magno, C. (2010). Assessing academic self-regulated learning among Filipino college students: the factor structure and item fit. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 5, 61–76.Google Scholar
  49. Magno, C. (2011a). The predictive validity of the academic self-regulated learning scale. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 9(1), 48–56.Google Scholar
  50. Magno, C. (2011b). Validating the academic self-regulated learning scale with the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) and learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI). The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 7(2), 56–73.Google Scholar
  51. Marton, F., & Säljö, R. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning: I. Outcome and process. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46(1), 4–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McDaniel, M. A., Hartman, N. S., Whetzel, D. L., & Grubb, W. L., III. (2007). Situational judgment tests, response instructions, and validity: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 60, 63–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McDaniel, M. A., Morgeson, F. P., Finnegan, E. B., Campion, M. A., & Braverman, E. P. (2001). Use of situational judgment tests to predict job performance: a clarification of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 730–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Motowidlo, S. J., & Tippins, N. (1993). Further studies of the low-fidelity simulation in the form of a situational inventory. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 66, 337–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Muis, K. R., Winne, P. H., & Jamieson-Noel, D. (2007). Using a multitrait-multimethod analysis to examine conceptual similarities of three self-regulated learning inventories. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(1), 177–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ning, H. K., & Downing, K. (2010). The reciprocal relationship between motivation and self-regulation: a longitudinal study on academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(6), 682–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nückles, M., Schwonke, R., Berthold, K., & Renkl, A. (2004). The use of public learning diaries in blended learning. Journal of Educational Media, 29, 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Peverly, S. T., Brobst, K. E., Graham, M., & Shaw, R. (2003). College adults are not good at self-regulation: a study on the relationship of self-regulation, note taking, and test taking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 335–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 459–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 452–502). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  61. Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 385–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pintrich, P. R., & Garcia, T. (1994). Self-regulated learning in college students: Knowledge, strategies, and motivation. In P. R. Pintrich, D. R. Brown, & C. E. Weinstein (Eds.), Student motivation, cognition, and learning (pp. 113–133). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  63. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.Google Scholar
  64. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 801–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pintrich, P. R., Wolters, C. A., & Baxter, G. P. (2000). Assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning. In G. Schraw & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Issues in the measurement of metacognition (pp. 43–97). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.Google Scholar
  66. Pintrich, P. R., Zusho, A., Schiefele, U., & Pekrun, R. (2001). Goal orientation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom: A cross-cultural comparison. In F. Salili, C. Y. Chiu, & Y. Y. Hong (Eds.), Student motivation. The culture and context of learning (pp. 149–169). New York, NY: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  67. Prevatt, F., Petscher, Y., Proctor, B. E., Hurst, A., & Adams, K. (2006). The revised learning and study strategies inventory. An evaluation of competing models. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(3), 448–458.Google Scholar
  68. Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., Langley, R., & Carlstrom, A. (2004). Do psychological and study skill factors predict college outcome? Psychological Bulletin, 130, 261–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Salamonson, Y., Everett, B., Koch, J., Wilson, I., & Davidson, P. M. (2009). Learning strategies of first year nursing and medical students: a comparative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(12), 1541–1547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schatteman, A., Carette, E., Couder, J., & Eisendrath, H. (1997). Understanding the effects of a process-orientated instruction in the first year of university by investigating learning style characteristics. Educational Psychology, 17(1–2), 111–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schiefele, U., & Wild, K. P. (1994). Lernstrategien im Studium: Ergebnisse zur Faktorenstruktur und Reliabilität eines neuen Fragebogens [Learning strategies of university students: Factor structure and reliability of a new questionnaire]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 15, 185–200.Google Scholar
  72. Schmidt, K., Allgaier, A., Lachner, A., Björn, S., Rey, S., Frömmel, C., & Nückles, M. (2011). Diagnostik und Förderung selbstregulierten Lernens durch Self-Monitoring-Tagebücher [How to diagnose and improve self-regulated learning with self-monitoring protocols]. Zeitschrift für Hochschulentwicklung, 6(3), 246–269.Google Scholar
  73. Schmitz, B., Klug, J., & Schmidt, M. (2011). Assessing self-regulated learning using diary measures with university students. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 251–266). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Schmitz, B., & Perels, F. (2011). Self-monitoring of self-regulation during math homework behaviour using standardized diaries. Metacognition and Learning, 6, 255–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schmitz, B., & Wiese, B. S. (1999). Eine Prozeßstudie selbstregulierten Lernverhaltens im Kontext aktueller affektiver und motivationaler Faktoren [A process study of self-regulated learning behavior in the context of motivational and emotional states]. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, 31, 157–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schmitz, B., & Wiese, B. S. (2006). New perspectives for the evaluation of training sessions in self-regulated learning: time-series analyses of diary data. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31, 64–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schütte, M., Wirth, J., & Leutner, D. (2012). Lernstrategische Teilkompetenzen für das selbstregulierte Lernen aus Sachtexten [Learning competencies required for self-regulated learning with expository texts]. Psychologische Rundschau, 63(1), 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sitzmann, T., & Ely, K. (2011). A meta-analysis of self-regulated learning in work-related training and educational attainment: what we know and where we need to go. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 421–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Song, H. S., Kalet, A. L., & Plass, J. L. (2011). Assessing medical students’ self-regulation as aptitude in computer-based learning. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 16(1), 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Spörer, N., & Brunstein, J. C. (2006). Erfassung selbstregulierten Lernens mit Selbstberichtsverfahren [Assessing self-regulated learning with self-report measures: A state-of-the-art review]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 20(3), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Torgerson, C. J. (2006). Publication bias: the Achilles’ heel of systematic reviews? British Journal of Educational Studies, 54, 89–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Usta, E. (2011). The examination of online self-regulated learning skills in web-based learning environments in terms of different variables. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(3), 278–286.Google Scholar
  83. Van Eekelen, I. M., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Vermunt, J. D. (2005). Self-regulation in higher education teacher learning. Higher Education, 50, 447–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Varner, D., & Peck, S. R. (2003). Learning from learning journals: the benefits and challenges of using learning journal assignments. Journal of Management Education, 27(1), 52–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vermunt, J. D. (1998). The regulation of constructive learning processes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68(2), 149–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ward, L., & Traweek, D. (1993). Application of a metacognitive strategy to assessment, intervention, and consultation: A think-aloud technique. Journal of School Psychology, 31, 469–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Weekley, J. A., & Jones, C. (1999). Further studies of situational tests. Personnel Psychology, 52, 679–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Weinstein, C. E., & Palmer, D. R. (2002). Learning and study strategies inventory LASSI user’s manual (2nd ed.). Clearwater, FL: H & H.Google Scholar
  89. Weinstein, C. E., Schulte, A., & Palmer, D. R. (1987). The learning and study strategies inventory. Clearwater, FL: H & H.Google Scholar
  90. Winne, P. H. (2014). Issues in researching self-regulated learning as patterns of events. Metacognition and Learning, 9(2), 229–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Winne, P. H., Jamieson-Noel, D., & Muis, K. (2004). Methodological issues and advances in researching tactics, strategies, and self-regulated learning. New Directions in Measures and Methods, 12, 121–155.Google Scholar
  92. Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2000). Measuring self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 531–566). San Diego, CA: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wirth, J., & Leutner, D. (2008). Self-regulated learning as a competence. Implications of theoretical models for assessment methods. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 216, 102–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wolpert, M., Aitken, J., Syrad, H., Munroe, M., Saddington, C., Trustam, E., & Croudace, T. (2009). Review and recommendations for national policy for England for the use of mental health outcome measures with children and young people (DCSF Research Report 2008/56). Nottingham, England: DCSF.Google Scholar
  95. Wolters, C. A. (1998). Self-regulated learning and college students’ regulation of motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 224–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yip, M. C. W. (2009). Differences between high and low academic achieving university students in learning and study strategies: a further investigation. Educational Research and Evaluation, 15(6), 561–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yip, W. K., Mordiffi, S. Z., & Ang, E. (2012). Reliability, validity and feasibility of quality of life instruments for adult patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy: result from a systematic review. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 10, 27–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Young, D., & Ley, K. (2005). Developmental college student self-regulation: results from two measures. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 36(1), 60–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zimmerman, B. J. (1986). Development of self-regulated learning: which are the key subprocesses? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 307–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–39). San Diego, CA: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 166–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zimmerman, B., & Kitsantas, A. (2007). Reliability and validity of self-efficacy for learning form (SELF) scores of college students. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 215(3), 157–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 614–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1988). Construct validation of a strategy model of student self-regulated learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 284–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PsychologyTechnische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations