Readiness and expectations questionnaire: a cross-cultural measurement instrument for first-year university students

  • Ellen Jansen
  • Stéfanie André
  • Cor Suhre


The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students’ expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of college. This instrument was initially developed to compare students enrolled in programs in the Netherlands and New Zealand, with predominant populations of domestic students. However, the Bologna process and globalisation trends also have increased the availability of international degree programmes. This raised the question whether the REQ can be used to compare groups of international students. Therefore, this article aims to assess the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the REQ in international bachelor degree programmes in economics and business in a Dutch university, taught in English. The results indicate that not all aspects of the instrument achieve measurement equivalence, but most of its scales, with some adaptations, can evaluate students’ expectations and preparedness and thus encourage a better match between student and institution.


Expectations First-year students Cross-cultural Measurement equivalence International students Cross-national research 


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Behavioural and Social SciencesUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of SociologyTilburg UniversityTilburgThe Netherlands

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