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Reactive Element Effect Applied by Alloying and SiHfBCN Coating on the Oxidation of Pure Chromium

Abstract

To reduce scale spallation, scale volatilization, and nitrogen embrittlement in Cr-based systems, reactive elements such as Y, Zr, Hf, La, and Ce were introduced as oxide dispersions into pure chromium. In addition, Hf coating systems were investigated. One was a Hf sputter layer with varying thickness, and the other one a Hf-containing precursor ceramic, i.e., SiHfBCN, which may be considered as suitable material for environmental barrier coating applications. Oxidation tests at \(1050\,^{\circ }\hbox {C}\) in synthetic air for 50 h were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis. The samples were analyzed via X-ray diffraction, optical microscope, electron microprobe analysis, and scanning electron microscope. All reactive elements led to a decrease in total mass gain after oxidation compared to pure Cr, with Y and Zr showing the strongest effect. Improvements in oxide attachment, oxide growth rate, volatilization rate as well as nitridation resistance were observed. Concerning these experiments, Y showed the most promising results. Concerning Hf, coating systems, especially SiHfBCN, showed a higher effect on improving the oxidation resistance. The reason for this outcome might be that not only Hf is active in the precursor ceramic layer. A more complex oxide layer has formed, which consisted of not only Cr2O3 but also of Hf and Si oxides. This layer prevents the material from any nitridation under the selected oxidation conditions.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank Melanie Thalheimer and Dr. Gerald Schmidt from High Temperature Materials Group, DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut, for SEM and EPMA measurements and Bastien Burek from Chemical Technology Group, DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut, for the assistance in sputtering of the reactive elements. Cong Zhou and Ying Zhan from the Dispersive Solids Group, TU Darmstadt, are thanked for their help with precursor sample preparation. The authors would also like to express their gratitude to the Plansee Group for providing chromium used in this work.

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Correspondence to Anke S. Ulrich.

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This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grant GA 1704/2.

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Ulrich, A.S., Kaiser, T., Ionescu, E. et al. Reactive Element Effect Applied by Alloying and SiHfBCN Coating on the Oxidation of Pure Chromium. Oxid Met 92, 281–302 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11085-019-09926-w

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11085-019-09926-w

Keywords

  • Chromium
  • Reactive element effect
  • Oxidation resistance
  • Impurity effect
  • Thermogravimetric analysis
  • Precursor ceramic SiHfBCN