Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 87, Issue 1–2, pp 39–56 | Cite as

High-Temperature Corrosion of Stainless Steels and Ni Alloys During Combustion of Urea–Ammonium Nitrate (UAN) Fuel

  • M. Starostin
  • A. Grinberg Dana
  • O. Dinner
  • G. E. Shter
  • G. S. Grader
Original Paper


This paper reports on corrosion behavior of different materials under combustion of a nitrogen-based fuel: aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and urea (UAN). Tested materials include stainless steels 316, 310 and nickel alloys: 600, 601, 617, 800H and RA333. The results were derived under conditions close to those in practical continuous combustion applications. The coupons were positioned in quartz cylinders at temperature 520 ± 10 °C and pressure 10 MPa in the effluent gases. The corrosion of the 316 SS fuel injection tube was tested as a function of the stages that occurred along the tube, namely: heating, ignition, and combustion. Microstructure, chemical composition, depth profile and thickness of the formed oxide scales were studied. High corrosion resistance was found for 310 SS, nickel alloys 601 and RA 333. The heaviest corrosion attack of 316 inlet tube (both general and intergranular) was observed in the area where the exothermic combustion process began.


Nitrogen-based fuel Corrosion Stainless steel Ni alloys 



The authors acknowledge the generous support of Mr. Ed Satell, Philadelphia, PA, and the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP), as well as the Committee for Planning and Budgeting of the Council for Higher Education under the framework of the KAMEA Program.


  1. 1.
    A. Grinberg Dana, G. E. Shter and G. S. Grader, RSC Advances 4, 2014 (10051).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Grinberg Dana, G. E. Shter and G. S. Grader, RSC Advances 4, 2014 (34836).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Grinberg Dana, G. Tvil, L. Winter, G. E. Shter and G. S. Grader, Fuel 159, 2015 (500).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Grinberg Dana, B. Mosevitzky, G. Tvil, M. Epstein, G. E. Shter and G. S. Grader, Energy and Fuels 30, 2016 (2474).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Grinberg Dana, G. E. Shter and G. S. Grader, Energy Technology 3, 2015 (976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Grinberg Dana, G. E. Shter and G. S. Grader, Energy Technology 4, 2016 (7).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    O. Hollander and G. E. Geiger, Materials Performance 41, 2002 (50).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. R. Cahoon, Corrosion 58, 2002 (166).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Uhlig and H. Mazille, Corrosion 28, 1972 (427).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    I. Kap, M. Starostin, G. E. Shter and G. S. Grader, Materials and Corrosion 63, 2012 (571).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    O. Elishav, G. E. Shter and G. S. Grader, Fuel 181, 2016 (765).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. Mosevitzky, A. Grinberg Dana, G. E. Shter and G. S. Grader, Combustion and Flame 166, 2016 (295).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. Mu, K. Jung, N. M. Yanar, F. S. Pettit, G. R. Holcomb, B. H. Howard and G. H. Meier, Oxidation of Metals 79, 2013 (461).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. Hussain, K. A. Shahid, I. H. Khan and S. Rahman, Oxidation of Metals 41, 1993 (251).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. Liu, J. E. Tang, A. Asteman, J. E. Svensson, L. G. Johansson and M. Halvarsson, Oxidation of Metals 71, 2009 (77).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Asteman, J. E. Svensson and L. G. Johansson, Corrosion Science 44, 2002 (2635).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Nishiyama, N. Otsuka and T. Kudo, Corrosion Science 48, 2006 (2064).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Kritzer, N. Boukis and E. Dinjus, Corrosion 56, 2000 (1093).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Grinberg Dana, M. Starostin, G. E. Shter and G. S. Grader, Oxidation of Metals 82, 2014 (491).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. M. Pollock and S. Tin, Journal of Propulsion and Power 22, 2006 (361).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    V. Firouzdor, K. Sridharan, G. Cao, M. Anderson and T. R. Allen, Corrosion Science 69, 2013 (281).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Incoloy alloy 800 Special Metals Corporation, http://www.specialmetals.com
  23. 23.
    W. Ren and R. Swindeman, ASME 2010 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference: 6, Parts A and B Bellevue, Washington, USA, 821 (2010)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. H. Xia and J. L. Luo, Transactions of Tianjin University 21, 2015 (234).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Inconel alloy 600 Special Metals Corporation, http://www.specialmetals.com.
  26. 26.
    P. M. Scott. in Ni 600, 9th International Symposium of Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems—Water Reactors, eds. F. P. Ford, S. M. Bruemmer and G. S. Was, (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS), Warrendale, 1999), p. 3.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D. Van Rooyen, Corrosion 31, 1975 (327).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Inconel alloy 601 Special Metals Corporation, http://www.specialmetals.com.
  29. 29.
    R. Pillai, H. Ackermann and K. Lucka, Corrosion Science 69, 2013 (181).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. Ackermann, G. Teneva-Kosseva, H. Köhne, K. Lucka and S. Richter, Materials and Corrosion 59, 2008 (380).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. Strubbe, V. Serban, G. Marginean and W. Brandl, http://konsys-t.tanger.cz/files/proceedings/04/reports/1172.pdf.
  32. 32.
    Inconel alloy 617 Special Metals Corporation, http://www.specialmetals.com.
  33. 33.
    J. Chapovaloff, F. Rouillard, K. Wolski and M. Pijolat, Corrosion Science 69, 2013 (31).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Stein-Brzozowska, D. M. Florez, J. Maier and G. Scheffknecht, Fuel 108, 2013 (521).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    N. Otsuka and H. Fujikawa, Corrosion 5, 1991 (240).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Akbari-Garakani and M. Mehdizadeh, Materials and Design 32, 2011 (2695).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Z. Zeng, K. Natesan, Z. Cai and D. L. Rink, Fuel 117, 2014 (133).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. A. Page, J. E. Hack and R. D. Brown, Metallurgical Transactions A 15A, 1984 (11).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M.G. Fontana, Corrosion Engineering, (3-d Edition, 3-18, 1986).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    D. Mandrino, M. Godec, M. Torkar and M. Jenko, Surface and Interface Analysis 40, 2008 (285).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Starostin
    • 1
  • A. Grinberg Dana
    • 2
  • O. Dinner
    • 1
  • G. E. Shter
    • 1
  • G. S. Grader
    • 1
  1. 1.The Wolfson Department of Chemical EngineeringTechnion—Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.The Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy ProgramTechnion—Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations