Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 82, Issue 5–6, pp 347–357 | Cite as

Characterization of Oxide Scales Formed on Ferritic Stainless Steel 441 at 1,100 °C under water vapor

  • Valentin Badin
  • Entela Diamanti
  • Pierre Forêt
  • Evelyne Darque-Ceretti
Original Paper


This study focuses on the characterization of the oxide scales formed after different exposure times in the range of 2.5–20 min. A commercially available ferritic steel grade AISI 441 was exposed to wet argon at 1100 °C with 5, 9 and 13% H2O. Raman microspectroscopy, XRD, EDS and XPS were used to fully characterize the oxide scale. For all samples exposed for over 4 min, the scale was constituted of three layers in this order: a thin top layer of spinel phases (Fe,Cr,Mn)3O4 with local outgrowths; a second and main layer of Cr2O3 + (Mn,Cr)3O4; and finally a bottom layer of SiO2. The uncommon presence of Fe in the top layer was also observed.


Ferritic stainless steel Oxidation High temperature Short-term exposures Water vapor 



The authors wish to thank Linde AG for financing this research. The help of L. Bellot-Gurlet for Raman microspectroscopy experiments was also sincerely appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentin Badin
    • 1
  • Entela Diamanti
    • 2
  • Pierre Forêt
    • 2
  • Evelyne Darque-Ceretti
    • 1
  1. 1.CEMEF - Centre for Material Forming, CNRS UMR 7635MINES ParisTech, PSL - Research UniversitySophia Antipolis CedexFrance
  2. 2.Linde AGUnterschleissheimGermany

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