Characterization of Oxide Scales Formed on Ferritic Stainless Steel 441 at 1,100 °C under water vapor
This study focuses on the characterization of the oxide scales formed after different exposure times in the range of 2.5–20 min. A commercially available ferritic steel grade AISI 441 was exposed to wet argon at 1100 °C with 5, 9 and 13% H2O. Raman microspectroscopy, XRD, EDS and XPS were used to fully characterize the oxide scale. For all samples exposed for over 4 min, the scale was constituted of three layers in this order: a thin top layer of spinel phases (Fe,Cr,Mn)3O4 with local outgrowths; a second and main layer of Cr2O3 + (Mn,Cr)3O4; and finally a bottom layer of SiO2. The uncommon presence of Fe in the top layer was also observed.
KeywordsFerritic stainless steel Oxidation High temperature Short-term exposures Water vapor
The authors wish to thank Linde AG for financing this research. The help of L. Bellot-Gurlet for Raman microspectroscopy experiments was also sincerely appreciated.
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