Skip to main content

Experimental and clinical study of simultaneous dual-wavelength laser action in energetic cataract surgery


A new technique of energy cataract surgery with the simultaneous use of two wavelength of laser emission acting as high-intensity laser—endodissector (Nd:YAG, wavelength λ = 1.44 µm) and a low-intensity laser—endobiostimulator (He–Ne, wavelength λ = 0.632 μm) is represented. The surgical technique is bimanual. The radiation of high-intensity laser ensures the destruction of cataract lens of any density level without additional assistance of ultrasound and without manual fragmentation. The laser tip, which contacts the eye tissues, does not heat up. In the process of high-intensity laser action splitting and spalling of the eye lens core occurs. Laser energy does not go beyond the lens capsule as it is almost completely absorbed by the liquid of the anterior chamber (water) at less than 1 mm from the distal end of the laser tip. Simultaneous exposure to radiation of high-intensity and low-intensity lasers delivered to the eye lens via one laser tip provide to prevent the progression of posttraumatic inflammatory process in the eye at the initial stage of the start of pathophysiological intracellular changes. This ensures high efficiency and safety of simultaneous dual-wavelength laser cataract extraction (DW LCE).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  • Abell, R.G., Kerr, N.M., Vote, B.J.: Toward zero effective phacoemulsification time using femtosecond laser pretreatment. Ophthalmology 120(5), 942–948 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aron-Rosa, D.S.: Use of a pulsed neodymium-YAG laser for capsulotomy before extracapsular cataract extraction. J. Am. Intraocul. Implant. Soc. 7, 332–333 (1981)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Astakhov, SYu., Gobejishvili, M.V.: Posleoperatsionnyy makulyarnyy otek, sindrom Irvina-Gassa [Postoperative macular edema, Irvine-Gass syndrome]. Clin. Ophthalmol. 11, 5–7 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  • Chambles, W.S.: Neodymium:YAG laser phacofracture: an aid to phacoemulsification. J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 180–181 (1988)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chaudhari, M., Agarwal, N.S., Nayak, B.K.: Determination of the nature and origin of the metallic foreign particles appearing on the iris after phacoemulsification. J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 39(7), 1008–1010 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dodick, J.M., Christiansen, J.: Experimental studies on the development and propagation of shock waves created by the interaction of short Nd:YAG laser phacolysis of the cataractous human lens. J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 17, 794–797 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Evstigneev, A.R.: O vozmozhnom mekhanizme deystviya impul’snogo izlucheniya poluprovodnikovykh lazerov na biotkani [On the possible mechanism of action of pulsed semiconductor lasers radiation on biological tissues]. Fizicheskaya meditsina. 5(1–2), 8 (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  • Fedorov, S.N., Kopaeva, V.G., Belikov, A.V., Erofeev, A.V., Andreev, Y.V.: Device for ophthalmic operations. Patent RU 2130762 (1997)

  • Fedorov, S.N., Kopaeva, V.G., Belikov, A.V., Erofeev, A.V., Andreev, Y.V.: Device for ophthalmic operations. Patent RU 2157158 (1998)

  • Fedorov, S.N., Kopaeva, V.G., Belikov, A.V., Erofeev, A.V., Andreev, Y.V.: Vorrichtung zur kataraktoperation. Patentschrift DE 198 56 677 B4 (2004)

  • Feldman, B.H.: Femtosecond laser will not be a standard method for cataract extraction ten years from now. Surv. Ophthalmol. 60(4), 360–365 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fyodorov, S.N., Kopaeva, V.G., Belikov, A.V., Erofeev, A.V., Andreev, Y.V.: Device for removing cataract. Patent US 6,322,557 B1 (2001)

  • He, L., Sheehy, K., Culbertson, W.: Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 22(1), 43–52 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  • Höh, H., Fisher, E.: Pilot study on erbium laser phacoemulsification. Ophthalmology 107(6), 1053–1061 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelman, C.D.: Phaco-emulsification and aspiration; a new technique of cataract removal, a preliminary report. Am. J. Opthtalmol. 64, 23–25 (1967)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khodzhayev, N.S.: Khirurgiya katarakty s ispol’zovaniyem malykh razrezov: kliniko-teoreticheskoye obosnovaniye [Cataract surgery using small incisions: clinical and theoretical justification (in Russian)]. Abstract of MD dissertation, Moscow (2000)

  • Kopaev, S.Yu.: Kliniko-eksperimental’noe obosnovanie kombinirovannogo ispol’zovaniya neodimovogo IAG 1.44 mkm i gelii-neonovogo 0.63 mkm lazerov v khirurgii katarakty [Clinical and experimental substantiation of the combined use of neodymium YAG 1.44 μm and a helium-neon 0.63 μm lasers in cataract surgery (in Russian)]. MD dissertation, Moscow (2014)

  • Kopaeva, V., Andreev, J.: Current aspect of LCE. Kerala J. Ophthalmol. 18(2), 46–51 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kopaeva, V.G., Andreev, Yu.A.: Lazernaya ekstraktsiya katarakty [Laser cataract extraction (in Russian)] ed. H.P. Takhchidi. Oftalmologiya, Moscow (2011)

  • Kopayeva, V.G., Kopayev, SYu.: Laser energy in cataract surgery. Sci. World 6(34), 32–34 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kopayeva, V., Vialova, E.: Laser energy in cataract surgery could abolish ultrasound. EyeWorld USA 18(3), 136–138 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kopayeva, V.G., Razhuan, Y.A., Uvunyan, D.G., Kopayev, SYu.: Lazernaya ekstraktsiya oslozhnennoy katarakty u patsiyentov s psevdoeksfoliativnym sindromom pri ispol’zovanii Nd:YAG lazera s dlinoy volny 1,44 mkm [Laser extraction of complicated cataract in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome using Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1.44 μm]. Oftal’mokhirurgiya. 2, 10–13 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kopaev, SYu., Malyugin, B.E., Kopaeva, V.G.: Kliniko-funktsional’nyye rezul’taty khirurgii katarakty s ispol’zovaniyem kombinatsii neodimovogo IAG (1,44 mkm) i geliy-neonovogo (0,63 km) lazernykh istochnikov dlya fragmentatsii khrustalika [Clinical and functional results of cataract surgery using a combination of neodymium YAG (1.44 μm) and helium-neon (0.63 μm) laser sources for lens fragmentation]. Oftal’mokhirur. Oftal’mokhirurgiya. 4, 22–28 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kránitz, K., Takacs, A., Miháltz, K., Kovács, I., Knorz, M.C., Nagy, Z.Z.: Femtosecond laser capsulotomy and manual continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis parameters and their effects on intraocular lens centration. J. Refract. Surg. 27(8), 558–563 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nagy, Z., Takács, A., Filkorn, T., Sarayba, M.: Initial clinical evaluation of an intraocular femtosecond laser in cataract surgery. J. Refract. Surg. 25(12), 1053–1060 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Puliafito, C.A., Steinert, R.F.: Laser surgery of the lens. Exp. Stud. Ophthalmol. 90, 1007–1012 (1983)

    Google Scholar 

  • Snyder, R.W., Noecker, R.J., Jones, H.: In vitro comparison of phacoemulsification and erbium:YAG laser in lens capsule rupture. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1934 (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  • Verges, C., Levat, E.: Laser cataract surgery: technique and clinical results. J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1339–1345 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The article is dedicated to the blessed memory of Academician Svyatoslav N. Fyodorov – the great scientist, who actively supported scientific researches and personally supervised the results of the first 100 operations with LCE technology. This work was supported by Government of Russian Federation (Grant 08-08). The authors are grateful to ITMO University (Saint Petersburg, Russia), The S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution (Moscow, Russia) and Nela Ltd. (Saint Petersburg, Russia) for providing equipment and support to this study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sergey N. Smirnov.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Fundamentals of Laser Assisted Micro- & Nanotechnologies.

Guest edited by Tigran Vartanyan, Vadim Veiko, Andrey Belikov and Eugene Avrutin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Belikov, A.V., Kopayeva, V.G., Kopayev, S.Y. et al. Experimental and clinical study of simultaneous dual-wavelength laser action in energetic cataract surgery. Opt Quant Electron 52, 174 (2020).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Dual-wavelength laser cataract extraction
  • 1.44 μm Nd:YAG laser
  • 0.632 μm He–Ne laser
  • Intraoperative endoocular bio-stimulation
  • Phacoemulsification