An influence of transition Ni2+ metal ions on the optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of l-alanine cadmium chloride

  • B. S. Benila
  • K. C. Bright
  • S. Mary Delphine
  • R. Shabu


Single crystals of pure and 0.4 mol% Nickel chloride (Ni2+) doped l-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC), a semi organic nonlinear optical crystal have been grown from solution by slow evaporation at ambient temperature. The crystalline nature of the sample crystals was observed using powder XRD analysis. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of dopant Ni2+ in the host crystal LACC. The transmittance of the crystals was studied by UV–visible spectrophotometer and it reveals that there is good optical transparency for the pure and doped crystals. The dielectric studies show that the crystals possess low dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. Using Nd-YAG laser the NLO property of the crystals was studied. The Ni2+ ions doped LACC crystals have high SHG efficiency than the pure LACC crystal. TG/DTA analysis suggested the doped crystal retains its texture up to a temperature of 153.03 °C. The magnetic properties of the crystals were reported using vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. Diamagnetic behaviour is changed into ferromagnetic in the doped crystal.


Transition metal EDAX Low dielectric constant Ferromagnetic 


  1. Ahmad, M., Grossinger, R., Kriegisch, M., Kubel, F., Rana, M.U.: Characterization of Sr-substituted W-type hexagonal ferrites synthesized by sol–gel autocombustion method. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 332, 137–145 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arora, S.K., Patel, V., Amin, B., Kothari, A.: Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals. Bull. Mater. Sci. 27, 141–147 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balarew, C., Duhlew, R.: Application of the hard and soft acids and bases concept to explain ligand coordination in double salt structures. J. Solid State Chem. 55, 1–6 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benila, B.S., Bright, K.C., Mary Delphine, S., Shabu, R.: Optical, thermal and magnetic studies of pure and cobalt chloride doped l-alanine cadmium chloride. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 426, 390–395 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bozorth Richard, M.: Ferromagnetism, first published 1951, reprinted 1993 by IEEE press, New York as a ‘classic Reissue’. ISBNO-7803-1032-2Google Scholar
  6. Bright, K.C., Freeda, T.H.: Growth and characterization of organometallic l-alanine cadmium chloride single crystal by slow evaporation technique. Phys. B 405(18), 3857–3861 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Danushkodi, S., Vasantha, K., Angeli Mary, P.A.: Structural and thermal characterization of semiorganic NLO material: l-Alanine cadmium chloride. Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 66, 637–642 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dharmaprakash, S.M., Mohan Rao, P.: Dielectric properties of hydrated barium oxalate and barium cadmium oxalate crystals. J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 8(10), 1167–1668 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huheey, E., Keiter, A., Keiter, L., Medhi, K.: Inorganic chemistry-principles of structure and reactivity, vol. Fourth. Pearson Publishers, London (2006)Google Scholar
  10. Kalaiselvi, P., Alfred Cecil Raj, S., Vijayan, N.: Linear and Nonlinear properties of semiorganic single crystal: l-alanine cadmium chloride. Optik 124, 6978–6982 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kurtz, S.K., Perry, T.T.: A powder technique for the evaluation of nonlinear optical materials. J. Appl. Phys 39, 3798–3813 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Le Fur, Y., Masse, R., Cherkaoui, M.Z., Nicoud, J.F.: Zeitschrift für Kristallographie. Cryst. Mater. 210, 856–860 (1995)Google Scholar
  13. Lee, J.D.: Concise of Organic Chemistry. Wellwish Science, Germany (2004)Google Scholar
  14. Lee, H.S., Lee, A.S., Baek, K.-Y., Hwang, S.S.: Low dielectric materials for microelectronics. InTech. 59–76 (2012).
  15. Mukhtar, A., Grossinger, R., Kriegisch, M., Kubel, F., Rana, M.U.: Magnetic, microwave attenuation behaviour of Al-substituted CO2W hexaferrites synthesized by sol–gel auto combustion process. Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, 1413–1420 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pradeep, A., Priyadharsini, P., Chandrasekaran, G.: Sol-gel route of synthesis of nanoparticles of MgFe2O4 and XRD, FTIR and VSM study. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2774–2779 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rao, K.V., Smakula, A.A.: Dielectric properties of alkaline earth fluoride single crystals. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 319–323 (1966)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schaffers, K.I., Keszler, D.A.: Structure of CdCl2.C3H7NO2. Acta Cryst. C49, 1156–1158 (1993)Google Scholar
  19. Smyth, C.P.: Dielectric Behaviour and Structure. Mcgraw Hill, New York (1965)Google Scholar
  20. Sumithraj, P.P., SahayaShajan, X., Alex, D.H.: Öptical and thermal studies on pure and doped l-arginine phosphate crystals. Indian J. Sci. Technol. 3, 253–256 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. Suresh, S., Varadharajan, R.: Optical properties of L-alanine cadmium chloride NLO single crystal. J. Phys. Photon 107, 168–171 (2013)Google Scholar
  22. Wu, X., Wang, X., Liu, Y., Cai, W., Peng, S., Huang, F., Lu, X., Yan, F., Zhu, J.: Study on dielectric and magneto dielectric properties of Lu3Fe5O12 ceramics. Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 182903 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. S. Benila
    • 1
  • K. C. Bright
    • 2
  • S. Mary Delphine
    • 3
  • R. Shabu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and Research CentreScott Christian College (Autonomous)NagercoilIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsSt. John’s CollegeAnchal, KollamIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsHoly Cross College (Autonomous)NagercoilIndia

Personalised recommendations