Formation of zinc oxide nanostructures by wet oxidation of vacuum deposited Zn thin film

  • Mary Donnabelle L. Balela
  • Christian Mark O. Pelicano
  • Jennifer Damasco Ty
  • Hisao Yanagi
Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Photonic Science and Engineering on the Micro/Nano Scale

Abstract

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures with various morphologies (pencil-like nanorods, nanotubes, and lotus-like structures) have been successfully formed by simple oxidation of vacuum deposited Zn thin film on glass/ITO substrates in hot water at 90 °C. The morphology evolved from pencil-like nanorods to nanotubes to lotus-like structures with prolonged oxidation of Zn thin film for 6–24 h. The change in morphology of ZnO is attributed to the combined effects of electrochemical reactions in the solution, morphology and structure of Zn thin film, and wurtzite structure of resulting ZnO. A hybrid organic–inorganic solar cell following an inverted bulk heterojunction configuration was fabricated based on the lotus-like ZnO structures. The solar cell achieved a power conversion efficiency of up to 1.18%, which demonstrates the applicability of the technique for photovoltaic applications.

Keywords

Zinc oxide Wet oxidation Hot water Hybrid solar cell Nanostructures 

References

  1. Arshad, M.: Band gap engineering and enhanced photoluminescence of Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical route. J. Lumin. 161, 275–280 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balela, M.D.L.: In situ mixed potential study of the growth of zinc oxide hierarchical nanostructures by wet oxidation of zinc foil. J. Mater. Sci. 52, 2319–2328 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cao, G.: Fast growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave heating method and their photocatalytic properties. Nanotechnology 27, 435402 (2016). doi:10.1088/0957-4484/27/43/435402 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Damasco-Ty, J.T., Yanagi, H.: Electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide nanorods for hybrid solar cells. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 04DK05 (2015). doi:10.7567/JJAP.54.04DK05 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fan, F.: Facile synthesis and gas sensing properties of tubular hierarchical ZnO self-assembled porous nanosheets. Sens. Actuators, B 215, 231–240 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gu, C.: Preparation of porous flower-like ZnO nanostructures and their gas-sensing property. J. Alloy. Compd. 509, 4499–4504 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huang, J.: Facile synthesis of porous ZnO nanowires consisting of ordered nanocrystallites and their enhanced gas-sensing property. Sens. Actuators, B 188, 249–256 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang, Y.: Fabrication and characterization of ZnO comb-like nanostructures. Ceram. Int. 32, 561–566 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huang, Y.: Low-temperature and two-step evaporation growth of ZnO nanotetrapods and their field emission properties. Mater. Lett. 62, 1342–1344 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liu, W.C., Cai, W.: Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanorings with ZnO nanowires array aligned at the inner surface without catalyst. J. Cryst. Growth 310, 843–846 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu, Y., Gao, W.: Growth process, crystal size and alignment of ZnO nanorods synthesized under neutral and acid conditions. J. Alloy. Compd. 629, 84–91 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Park, J.Y.: Formation of networked ZnO nanowires by vapor phase growth and their sensing properties with respect to CO. Mater. Lett. 65, 2755–2757 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pelicano, C.M.: Zinc oxide nanostructures formed by wet oxidation of zinc foil. Adv. Mater. Res. 1043, 22–26 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Qu, X.: Preparation and optical property of porous ZnO nanobelts. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 15, 244–250 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Roza, L.: Direct growth of oriented ZnO nanotubes by self-selective etching at lower temperature for photo-electrochemical (PEC) solar cell application. J. Alloy. Compd. 618, 153–158 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ruankham, P.: Surface modification of ZnO nanorods with small organic molecular dyes for polymer-inorganic hybrid solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 23809–23816 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Skeerantan, S.: Room temperature anodic deposition and shape control of one-dimensional nanostructured zinc oxide. J. Alloys Comp. 476, 513–518 (2011)Google Scholar
  18. Tan, W.K.: Formation of highly crystallized ZnO nanostructures by hot-water treatment of etched Zn foils. Mater. Lett. 91, 111–114 (2013a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tan, W.K.: Optical properties of two-dimensional ZnO nanosheets formed by hot-water treatment of Zn foils. Solid State Commun. 162, 43–47 (2013b)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tan, W.K.: Synthesis of ZnO nanorod-nanosheet composite via facile hydrothermal method and their photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation. J. Solid State Chem. 211, 146–153 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vayssieres, L.: Three-dimensional array of highly oriented crystalline ZnO microtubes. Chem. Mater. 13, 4395–4398 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wright, M., Uddin, A.: Organic–inorganic hybrid solar cells: a comparative review. Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cell. 107, 87–111 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xi, Y.: Growth of ZnO nanotube-array and nanotube based piezoelectric generators. J. Mater. Chem. 19, 9260–9264 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yagi, S.: Local pH control by electrolysis for ZnO epitaxial deposition on a Pt cathode. Electrochim. Acta 62, 348–353 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Donnabelle L. Balela
    • 1
  • Christian Mark O. Pelicano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jennifer Damasco Ty
    • 2
  • Hisao Yanagi
    • 2
  1. 1.Sustainable Electronic Materials Group, Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringUniversity of the Philippines DilimanQuezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.Graduate School of Materials ScienceNara Institute of Science and TechnologyIkomaJapan

Personalised recommendations