Skip to main content
Log in

All-optical photonic crystal NOT and OR logic gates using nonlinear Kerr effect and ring resonators

  • Published:
Optical and Quantum Electronics Aims and scope Submit manuscript


In this paper, a nonlinear photonic crystal structure is proposed in order to implement all-optical NOT and OR logic gates. The proposed structure includes combiners and limiters. The limiters are designed using ring resonator. Also, the combiners are optimized with changing the radius of rods near the crosspoint of waveguides in order to enhance the performance of structure. Nonlinear rods of proposed structure are made of silicon nanocrystal which has been used in order to create the frequency shift for different values of input power. Plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods have been utilized to simulate the performance of proposed logic gate. Simulation results show that the ON–OFF logic-level extinction ratio and bit rate are −18.7 dB and 333 Gbit/s, respectively.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Andalib, P., Granpayeh, N.: All-optical ultracompact photonic crystal AND gate based on nonlinear ring resonators. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 10–16 (2008)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Andalib, P., Granpayeh, N.: All-optical ultra-compact photonic crystal NOR gate based on nonlinear ring resonators. J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 085203–085210 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Bahrami, A., Mohammadnejad, Sh, Rostami, A.: All-optical multi-mode interference switch using non-linear directional coupler as a passive phase shifter. Fiber Integr. Opt. 30, 139–150 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bai, J., et al.: Photonic NOT and NOR gates based on a single compact photonic crystal ring resonator. Appl. Opt. 48, 6923–6927 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Danaie, M., Kaatuzian, H.: Design and simulation of an all-optical photonic crystal AND gate using nonlinear Kerr effect. Opt. Quantum Electron. 44, 27–34 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fasihi, K., Mohammadnejad, S.: Highly efficient channel-drop filter with a coupled cavity-based wavelength-selective reflection feedback. Opt. Express 17, 8983–8997 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Ghadrdan, M., Mansouri-Birjandi, M.A.: All-optical NOT logic gate based on photonic crystals. J. IJECE 3, 478–482 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  • Greene, J.H., Taflove, A.: General vector auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain method for nonlinear optics. Opt. Express 14, 8305 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Isfahani, B.M., Ahamdi Tameh, T., Granpayeh, N., Maleki Javan, A.R.: All-optical NOR gate based on nonlinear photonic crystal microring resonators. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1097–1102 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Ishizaka, Y., Kawaguchi, Y., Saitoh, K., Koshiba, M.: Design of ultra compact all-optical XOR and AND logic gates with low power consumption. Opt. Commun. 284, 3528–3533 (2011)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Joannopoulos, J.D., Johnson, S.G., Winn, J.N., Meade, R.D.: Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd edn. Princeton University Press, Princeton (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kabilan, A.P., Christina, X.S., Caroline, P.E.: Realization of optical logic gates using photonic crystal. In: International conference on optics and photonics, pp. 3–6 (2009)

  • Kabilan, A.P., Christina, X.S., Caroline, P.E.: Photonic crystal based all optical OR and XOR logic gates. In: Second international conference on computing, communication and networking technologies, pp. 0–3 (2010)

  • Kim, J.-Y., Kang, J.-M., Kim, T.-Y., Han, S.-K.: 10 Gbit/s all-optical composite logic gates with XOR, NOR, OR and NAND functions using SOA-MZI structures. Electron. Lett. 42, 303–304 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koos, C., Jacome, L., Poulton, C., Leuthold, J., Freude, W.: Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing. Opt. Express 15, 5976–5990 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Lavrinenko, A., et al.: Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components. Opt. Express 12, 234–248 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Lin, P., Hsu, F.: All optical NOR gates implemented by 2-D photonic crystals. In: 14th International symposium on electrets (ISE), pp. 193–194 (2011)

  • Ma, S., Chen, Sun, Z.H., Dutta, N.K.: High speed all optical logic gates based on quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. Opt. Express 18, 6417–6422 (2010)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Mansouri-Birjandi, M.A., Ghadrdan, M.: All-optical ultra compact photonic crystal switch based on nonlinear micro ring resonators. J. Irjabs. 4, 972–975 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  • Notomi, M., et al.: Nonlinear and adiabatic control of high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities. Opt. Express 15, 17458–17481 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Phongsanam, P., Teeka, C., Jomtarak, R., Mitatha, S., Yupapin, P.P.: All-optical logic AND and OR gates generated by dark–bright soliton conversion. Optik (Stuttg) 124, 406–410 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pourmahyabadi, M., Mohammadnejad, Sh: Numerical analysis of index-guiding photonic crystal fibers with low confinement loss and ultra-flattened dispersion by FDFD method. IJEEE 5, 170–179 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  • Prakash, G.V., et al.: Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607–4610 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Rakshit, J.K., Roy, J.N.: All-optical XOR/XNOR logic gate using micro-ring resonators. In: International conference on computers and devices for communication (CODCE), pp. 3–6 (2012)

  • Salmanpour, A., Mohammadnejad, S., Bahrami, A.: Photonic crystal logic gates: an overview. (2014). doi:10.1007/s11082-014-0102-1

  • Shinya, A., et al.: All-optical flip-flop circuit composed of coupled two-port resonant tunneling filter in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab. Opt. Express 14, 1230–1235 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Vujic, D., John, S.: Pulse reshaping in photonic crystal waveguides and microcavities with Kerr nonlinearity: critical issues for all-optical switching. Phys. Rev. A 72, 013807–013817 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, J., Sun, J., Sun, Q.: Proposal for all-optical switchable OR/XOR logic gates using sum-frequency generation. IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 541–543 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, J., Sun, J., Sun, Q., Wang, D., Zhang, X., Huang, D., Fejer, M.M.: PPLN-based flexible optical logic and gate. IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 211–213 (2008a)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, J., Sun, J., Zhang, X., Huang, D., Fejer, M.: PPLN-based all-optical three-input 20/40 Gb/s AND gate for NRZ/RZ signals and XOR gate for NRZ-DPSK/RZ-DPSK signals. Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OMV3 (2008b)

  • Wu, C.J., Liu, C.P., Ouyang, Z.: Compact and low-power optical logic NOT gate based on photonic crystal waveguides without optical amplifiers and nonlinear materials. Appl. Opt. 51, 680–685 (2012)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Xavier, S., Arunachalam, K.: Compact design of all-optical logic gates based on self-collimation phenomenon in two-dimensional photonic crystal. Opt. Eng. 51, 045201–045206 (2012)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Xavier, S., Arunachalam, K., Caroline, E., Johnson, W.: Design of two-dimensional photonic crystal-based all-optical binary adder. Opt. Eng. 52, 025201–025207 (2013)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, Y.-P.: All-optical photonic crystal AND gate with multiple operating wavelengths. Opt. Commun. 297, 165–168 (2013)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Sun, J., Liu, D., Huang, D.: All-optical AND gate at 10 Gbit/s based on cascaded single-port-couple SOAs. Opt. Express 12, 361–366 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhu, Z., Ye, W., Ji, J., Yuan, X., Zen, C.: High-contrast light-by-light switching and AND gate based on nonlinear photonic crystals. Opt. Express 14, 1783–1788 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Aryan Salmanpour.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Salmanpour, A., Mohammadnejad, S. & Omran, P.T. All-optical photonic crystal NOT and OR logic gates using nonlinear Kerr effect and ring resonators. Opt Quant Electron 47, 3689–3703 (2015).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: