We show that, when the longitudinal confinement factor in an edge-emitting laser is treated as a dynamic variable, the modulation transfer function has an extra term. This term produces a supplementary photon–photon resonance peak in the modulation response at a frequency corresponding to the frequency separation between longitudinal modes, when these modes are phase-locked long enough (quasi-phase-locked). The photon–photon resonance peak is strongest when two consecutive quasi-phase-locked dominant longitudinal modes have similar longitudinal envelopes and share equally the photon population.
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Laakso, A., Dumitrescu, M. Modified rate equation model including the photon–photon resonance. Opt Quant Electron 42, 785–791 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11082-011-9483-6