The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement no. 249546. For help with collecting the data, we are grateful to Alberto Baffigi, Ivan Berend, Luis Bértola, Steve Broadberry, Albert Carreras, Myung So Cha, Roberto Cortés Conde, Alan de Bromhead, Niamh Devitt, Rafa Dobado, Giovanni Federico, David Greasley, Ola Grytten, Gregg Huff, Elise Huillery, Martin Ivanov, Isao Kamata, Duol Kim, John Komlos, Toru Kubo, Pedro Lains, John Lampe, Sibylle Lehmann, Carol Leonard, Debin Ma, Graciela Marquéz, Matthias Morys, Aldo Musacchio, Noel Maurer, Ian McLean, Branko Milanovic, Steve Morgan, José Antonio Ocampo, Roger Owen, Les Oxley, Şevket Pamuk, Dwight Perkins, Guido Porto, Leandro Prados de la Escosura, Tom Rawski, Jim Robinson, Max Schulze, Martin Shanahan, Alan Taylor, Pierre van der Eng, Ulrich Woitek, and Vera Zamagni. We are also grateful for the comments from Michael Clemens, and participants at the UW Development Seminar (May 10 2012), the Trade and History conference (Madrid May 17, 2012), the WEHC session on Industrialization (Stellenbosch July 11 2012), and the Arndt-Corden Seminar (ANU December 11 2012). The usual disclaimer applies.