Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Policy entrepreneurs and post-conflict cross-border cooperation: a conceptual framework and the Israeli–Jordanian case

  • 672 Accesses

  • 22 Citations


What is the role of policy entrepreneurs in shaping the dynamics which normalize relationships between neighboring countries after the formal resolution of conflict? This article suggests a conceptual framework to understand the influence of policy entrepreneurs on public policy regarding cross-border interaction in post-conflict border regions. We analyze the motivations, preferences and strategies of local players which design given realities in the border region. We propose a typology of the various policy entrepreneurs active in the post-conflict border region. The theoretical framework is used in the analysis of the Israeli–Jordanian border region since the peace treaty of 1994.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Arieli, T. (2012). Borders of peace in policy and practice: National and local perspectives of Israel–Jordan border management. Geopolitics, 17(3), 658–680.

  2. Baumol, W. J. (1990). Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive and destructive. The Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 893–921.

  3. Bar-Tal, D. (2000). From intractable conflict through conflict resolution to reconciliation: Psychological analysis. Political Psychology, 21(2), 351–365.

  4. Clement, N., Ganster, P., & Sweedler, A. (1999). Development, environment and security in asymmetrical border regions: European and North American perspectives. In H. Eskelinen, I. Liikanen, & J. Oksa (Eds.), Curtains of iron and gold: Reconstructing borders and scales of interaction (pp. 243–281). Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.

  5. Cochrane, A., Peck, J., & Tickell, A. (1996). Manchester plays games: Exploring the local politics of globalization. Urban Studies, 33, 1319–1336.

  6. Cohen, N. (2012). Policy entrepreneurs and the design of public policy: Conceptual framework and the case of the National Health Insurance Law in Israel. Journal of Social Research & Policy, 3(1), 5–26.

  7. Cohen, N., & Arieli, T. (2011). Field research in conflict environments: Methodological challenges and snowball sampling. Journal of Peace Research, 48(4), 423–436.

  8. Cohen, N., & Ben-Porat, G. (2008). Business communities and peace: The cost-benefit calculations of political involvement. Peace and Change, 33(3), 426–446.

  9. Cooper, N. (2006). Peaceful warriors and warring peacemakers. The Economics of Peace and Security, 1(1), 20–23.

  10. Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, peace and peace research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167–191.

  11. Greenblatt, S. (1992). Marvellous possessions: The wonder of the new land. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  12. Hart, M. M., Stevenson, H. H., & Dial, J. (1995). Entrepreneurship: A definition revisited. In W. D. Bygrave, B. Bird, S. Birley, N. Churchill, M., R. Keeley, & W. Wetzel (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research (pp. 75–89). Babson Park, Ms: Babson College.

  13. Henrikson, A. K. (2000). Facing across borders: The diplomacy of bon voisinage. International Political Science Review, 21(2), 121–147.

  14. Kardoosh, M. A., & al Khouri, R. (2004). Qualifying industrial zones and sustainable development in Jordan. In Post conflict reconstruction: Selected papers from the eleventh annual conference, Economic Research Forum (ERF), Cairo, Egypt, pp. 153–233.

  15. Kingdon, J. W. [1984] (1995). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (2nd ed.). Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

  16. Kriesberg, L. (1998). Constructive conflict: From escalation to resolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

  17. Martínez, O. J. (1994). Border people: Life and society in the U.S.-Mexico borderlands. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

  18. Miller, B. (2005). When and how regions become peaceful: Potential theoretical pathways to peace. International Studies Review, 7(2), 229–267.

  19. Minghi, J. V. (1991). From conflict to harmony in border landscapes. In D. Rumley & J. V. Minghi (Eds.), The geography of border landscapes (pp. 43–62). London: Routledge.

  20. Mintrom, M. (2000). Policy entrepreneurs and school choice. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

  21. Mintrom, M. (2006). Policy entrepreneurs, think tanks, and trusts. In R. Miller (Ed.), New Zealand government and politics (pp. 536–546). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

  22. Mintrom, M., & Norman, P. (2009). Policy entrepreneurship and policy change. Policy Studies Journal, 37, 649–667.

  23. Mintrom, M., & Vergari, S. (1998). Policy networks and innovation diffusion: The case of state education reforms. Journal of Politics, 60, 126–148.

  24. Mishal, S., Kuperman, R. D., & Boas, D. (2001). Investment in peace: Politics of economic cooperation between Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority. Brighton, England: Sussex Academic Press.

  25. Munshi, K. (2007). From farming to international business: The social auspices of entrepreneurship in a growing economy. NBER Working Paper 13065. Cambridge MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

  26. Naudé, W. (2007). Peace, prosperity, and pro-growth entrepreneurship. Helsinki: United Nation University, discussion paper no. 2007/02.

  27. Newman, D. (2003). The lines that separate: Boundaries and borders in political geography. In J. A. Agnew, K. Mitchell, & G. Toal (Eds.), A companion to political geography (pp. 143–161). Malden, MA: Blackwell companions to geography, Blackwell Publishers.

  28. Perkmann, M. (2007). Policy entrepreneurship and multilevel governance: A comparative study of European cross-border regions. Environment and Planning, 25, 861–879.

  29. Press-Barnathan, G. (2006). The neglected dimension of commercial liberalism: Economic cooperation and transition to peace. Journal of Peace Research, 43(3), 261–278.

  30. Satloff, R. (1995). The Jordan–Israel peace treaty: A remarkable document. Middle East Quarterly, 2(1), 47–51.

  31. Schulpen, L., & Gibbon, P. (2002). Private sector development: Policies, practices and problems. World Development, 30(1), 1–15.

  32. Scott, J. W. (1999). European and North American contexts for cross-border regionalism. Regional Studies, 33(7), 605–617.

  33. Shamir, S. (2004). IsraelJordan relations: Projects, economics and business. Tel Aviv University, University Institute for Diplomacy and Regional Cooperation (Hebrew).

  34. Smith, B. R., & Stevens, C. E. (2010). Different types of social entrepreneurship: The role of geography and embeddedness on the measurement and scaling of social value. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 22(6), 575–598.

  35. Soffer, A. (1994). Forms of coexistance and transborder cooperation in a hostile area: The Israeli case. In W. A. Gallusser (Ed.), Political boundaries and coexistence, IGU symposium-Basle (pp. 182–191). Berne: Peter Lang inc.

  36. Treaty of Peace between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. October 26, 1994.

  37. Wilson, J. Q. (1980). The politics of regulation. In J. Q. Wilson (Ed.), The politics of regulation (pp. 319–336). New York: Basic Books.


  1. Jordan Times.

  2. Haaretz Daily.

List of interviews

  1. Anonymous 1 (A Jordanian Businessman CEO, textile company), 18.01.2006.

  2. Anonymous 2 (A Jordanian Businessman CEO, shipping company), 18.01.2006.

  3. Anonymous 3 (A Jordanian Businessman, owner of a shoes factory), 18.01.2006.

  4. Anonymous 4 (The Jordanian Al Haq Rachme farm manager), 28.01.2007.

  5. Abu Rashid, Manzur General (Ret.)—Chairman, Amman Center for Peace and Development, 19.12.2007.

  6. Al-Mughrabi, Salim—Head, Planning and EIA Section, ASEZA (Aqaba), 06.11.2008.

  7. Austin, J., Stevenson, H., Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Same, different, or both? Baylor University. http://www.neuroflow.ch/attachments/File/Social%20and%20Commercial%20Entrepreneurship.pdf.

  8. Aviel, Shaul—Barn Owl Project Manager, 22.11.2007.

  9. Avivi, Michal—Bet Shean Municipality, Spokeswoman, 06.12.2006.

  10. Bar, Gabi—Israel Industry and Commerce Ministry, QIZ coordinater, 02.05.2007.

  11. Baranes, Avi—Director, Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences of Eilat, 31.01.2007.

  12. Baker, Barakat—Field researcher, FoEME, Deir Allah, 29.11.2007.

  13. Bromberg, Gideon—General Director of Israeloffice, FoEME, 12.01.2009.

  14. Glickman, Yossi—former Director of Eilat District, Department of Construction, Israel Ministry of Security, 14.03.2007.

  15. Greenberg, Amnon—Director, Arava Research and Development Station, 28.01.2007.

  16. Israeli, Tuvia—Director of Jordan Department, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 01.03.2007.

  17. Khateeb, Nader—General Director of Palestine office, FoEME, 29.11.2007.

  18. Litvinoff, Dov—Mayer of Tamar regional council, 06.03.2007.

  19. Menuskin, Merri—former director of CIRC, 06.11.2006.

  20. Munqath, Mehyar—General Director of Jordan office, FoEME, 29.11.2007.

  21. Nicholls, A. (Ed.), (2006). Social entrepreneurship: New models of sustainable social change. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.

  22. Ouais, Qais—Director of North and Middle Ghors Department, Jordan Valley Authority, 06.12.2007.

  23. Piorko, Yuval—former head of Israel-Jordan Chamber of Commerce, 19.12.2006.

  24. Reiner, Shmuel-Rabbi—Male Gilboa Yeshiva (telephone conversation), 27.11.2008.

  25. Roberts, N. C., & King, P. J. (1991). Policy entrepreneurs: Their activity structure and function in the policy process. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 1, 147–175.

  26. Ron, Erez—former Project Director of “Economic Peace Corridor”, Vice Prime Minister’s Office, 10.03.2009.

  27. Roth, Lacey—Cleveland federation, (phone conversation and email), 14.03.2008.

  28. Sagive, Michal-Project Coordinator-Good Water Neighbors, FoEME, 09.11.2008.

  29. Samorai, Samo—Head, Department of Regional Cooperation, Eilat municipality, 05.11.2008.

  30. Schneider, M., & Teske, P. (1992). Toward a theory of the political entrepreneur: Evidence from local government. The American Political Science Review, 86, 737–747.

  31. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.

  32. Shatzberg, Ron—ECF project manager, 03.01.2007.

  33. Zaid, Ahuva-Skal, Red Sea Bay Club, 30.01.2007.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Nissim Cohen.

Additional information

Tamar Arieli and Nissim Cohen contributed equally to this article.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Arieli, T., Cohen, N. Policy entrepreneurs and post-conflict cross-border cooperation: a conceptual framework and the Israeli–Jordanian case. Policy Sci 46, 237–256 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11077-012-9171-9

Download citation


  • Policy entrepreneurship
  • Borders
  • Conflict
  • Israeli–Arab conflict