Optimal nonlinear feedback control of spacecraft rendezvous with finite low thrust between libration orbits


This paper presents the nonlinear closed-loop feedback control strategy for the spacecraft rendezvous problem with finite low thrust between libration orbits in the Sun–Earth system. The model of spacecraft rendezvous takes the perturbations in initial states, the actuator saturation limits, the measurement errors, and the external disturbance forces into consideration from an engineering point of view. The proposed nonlinear closed-loop feedback control strategy is not analytically explicit; rather, it is implemented by a rapid re-computation of the open-loop optimal control at each update instant. To guarantee the computational efficiency, a novel numerical algorithm for solving the open-loop optimal control is given. With the aid of the quasilinearization method, the open-loop optimal control problem is replaced successfully by a series of sparse symmetrical linear equations coupled with linear complementary problem, and the computational efficiency can be significantly increased. The numerical simulations of spacecraft rendezvous problems in the paper well demonstrate the robustness, high precision, and dominant real-time merits of the proposed closed-loop feedback control strategy.

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The authors are grateful for the financial support of the National Science Foundation of China (11102031), Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (DUT13LK25), Program Funded by Liaoning Province Education Administration (L2013015), and the National Basic Research Program of China (2010CB832704).

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Correspondence to Haijun Peng.

Appendix: The detailed expression of the formulae in some equations

Appendix: The detailed expression of the formulae in some equations

It is easy to verify that the elements \(\mathbf{K}_{u,v}^j \left( u,v=1,2,\right. \left. 3,4 \right) \) and \(\mathbf{f}_i^j \left( {i=1,2,3,4} \right) \) in Eqs. (35)–(38) can be given by

$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{K}_{11}^j&= \int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {N_1 N_1 \left[ {\mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{B}^\mathrm{T}\left( \tau \right) } \right] \hbox {d}\tau }, \end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{K}_{12}^j \!&= \!\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {N_1 \left[ {\left( {{ \dot{\mathbf{M}}}\otimes \mathbf{I}} \right) \!-\!\left( {\mathbf{M}\otimes \mathbf{A}\left( \tau \right) } \right) } \right] \hbox {d}\tau } \!=\!\left( {\mathbf{K}_{21}^j } \right) ^\mathrm{T},\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{K}_{13}^j \!&= \!\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {N_1 \left[ {\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{B}^\mathrm{T}\left( \tau \right) } \right] \hbox {d}\tau } \!=\!\left( {\mathbf{K}_{31}^j } \right) ^\mathrm{T},\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{K}_{14}^j \!&= \!\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {N_1 N_n \left[ {\mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{B}^\mathrm{T}\left( \tau \right) } \right] \hbox {d}\tau } \!=\!\left( {\mathbf{K}_{41}^j } \right) ^\mathrm{T},\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{f}_1^j&= -\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_1 \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{u}_\mathrm{d} \hbox {d}\tau } -\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_1 \mathbf{w}\left( \tau \right) \hbox {d}\tau }\nonumber \\&-\left( \; {\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_1 \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\mathbf{C}^{T}\hbox {d}\tau } } \right) \left( {{\varvec{\underline{\upbeta }}}^{j}\hbox {-}{\bar{\varvec{\upbeta }}}^{j}} \right) ,\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{K}_{22}^j&= \int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\left[ {\mathbf{M}^\mathrm{T}\mathbf{M}\otimes \mathbf{Q}\left( \tau \right) } \right] \hbox {d}\tau },\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{K}_{23}^j \!&= \!\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\left[ {\left( {{\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}\dot{\mathbf{M}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{I}} \right) -\left( \mathbf{{\underline{N}M}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{A}^\mathrm{T}\left( \tau \right) } \right) } \right] \hbox {d}\tau } \!=\!\left( {\mathbf{K}_{32}^j } \right) ^\mathrm{T},\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{K}_{24}^j \!&= \!\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {N_n \left[ {\left( {{\dot{\mathbf{M}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{I}} \right) -\left( {\mathbf{M}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{A}^\mathrm{T}\left( \tau \right) } \right) } \right] \hbox {d}\tau } \!=\!\left( {\mathbf{K}_{42}^j } \right) ^\mathrm{T},\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{f}_2^j&= \int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\left( {\mathbf{M}\otimes \mathbf{I}} \right) ^\mathrm{T}\mathbf{Q}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{x}_\mathrm{d} \hbox {d}\tau },\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{K}_{33}^j&= \int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\left[ \mathbf{{\underline{N}}^\mathrm{T}\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{B}^\mathrm{T}\left( \tau \right) } \right] \hbox {d}\tau },\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{K}_{34}^j&= \int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } N_n \left[ \left( \mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{B}^\mathrm{T}\left( \tau \right) \right) \right] \hbox {d}\tau =\left( {\mathbf{K}_{43}^j } \right) ^\mathrm{T},\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{f}_3^j&= -\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{u}_\mathrm{d} \hbox {d}\tau } -\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{w}\left( \tau \right) \hbox {d}\tau }\nonumber \\&-\left( \; {\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\mathbf{C}^{T}\hbox {d}\tau } } \right) \left( {{\varvec{\underline{\upbeta }}}^{j}\hbox {-}{\varvec{\bar{\upbeta }}}^{j}} \right) ,\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{K}_{44}^j&= \int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {N_n N_n \left[ {\mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{B}^\mathrm{T}\left( \tau \right) } \right] \hbox {d}\tau },\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{f}_4^j&= -\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_n \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{u}_\mathrm{d} \hbox {d}\tau } -\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_n \mathbf{w}\left( \tau \right) \hbox {d}\tau }\nonumber \\&-\left( \; {\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_n \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\mathbf{C}^{T}\hbox {d}\tau } } \right) \left( {{\varvec{\underline{\upbeta }}}^{j}\hbox {-}{\varvec{\bar{\upbeta }}}^{j}} \right) . \end{aligned}$$

Similarly, it is easy to verify that the elements \(\mathbf{\zeta }_{pq}^j \left( {p,q=1,2} \right) \) in Eqs. (58)–(59) can be given by

$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{\zeta }_{11}^j&= -\left( {\mathbf{E}_u^\mathrm{T} +\mathbf{K}_{12}^j } \right) \left( {\mathbf{K}_{22}^j } \right) ^{-1}\nonumber \\&\times \left( {\mathbf{K}_{23}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{K}_{32}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{22}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{f}_2^j -\mathbf{f}_2^j } \right) \nonumber \\&+\left( {\mathbf{E}_u^\mathrm{T} +\mathbf{K}_{12}^j } \right) \left( {\mathbf{K}_{22}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{K}_{23}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\nonumber \\&\times \left( \;{\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j }\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{u}_\mathrm{d} \hbox {d}\tau } +\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{w}\left( \tau \right) \hbox {d}\tau } \right) \nonumber \\&-\,\mathbf{K}_{13}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{K}_{32}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{22}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{f}_2^j +\mathbf{K}_{13}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\nonumber \\&\times \left( \; {\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{u}_\mathrm{d} \hbox {d}\tau } +\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{w}\left( \tau \right) \hbox {d}\tau } } \right) \nonumber \\&-\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_1 \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{u}_\mathrm{d} \hbox {d}\tau } -\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_1 \mathbf{w}\left( \tau \right) \hbox {d}\tau },\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{\zeta }_{12}^j&= -\left( {\mathbf{E}_u^\mathrm{T} +\mathbf{K}_{12}^j } \right) \left( {\mathbf{K}_{22}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{K}_{23}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\nonumber \\&\times \int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\mathbf{C}^\mathrm{T}\hbox {d}\tau } \nonumber \\&-\mathbf{K}_{43}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\mathbf{C}^\mathrm{T}\hbox {d}\tau }\nonumber \\&+\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_1 \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\mathbf{C}^\mathrm{T}\hbox {d}\tau },\end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{\zeta }_{21}^j&= -\left( {\mathbf{K}_{42}^j -\mathbf{E}_\mathrm{d}^\mathrm{T} } \right) \left( {\mathbf{K}_{22}^j } \right) ^{-1}\nonumber \\&\times \left( {\mathbf{K}_{23}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{K}_{32}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{22}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{f}_2^j -\mathbf{f}_2^j } \right) \nonumber \\&+\left( {\mathbf{K}_{42}^j -\mathbf{E}_\mathrm{d}^\mathrm{T} } \right) \left( {\mathbf{K}_{22}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{K}_{23}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\nonumber \\&\times \left( \; {\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } \mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{u}_\mathrm{d} \hbox {d}\tau } +\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } \mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{w}\left( \tau \right) \hbox {d}\tau \right) \nonumber \\&-\mathbf{K}_{43}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{K}_{32}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{22}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{f}_2^j +\mathbf{K}_{43}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\nonumber \\&\times \left( {\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } \mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{u}_\mathrm{d} \hbox {d}\tau } +\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } \mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{w}\left( \tau \right) \hbox {d}\tau \right) \nonumber \\&-\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_n \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{u}_\mathrm{d} \hbox {d}\tau } -\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_n \mathbf{w}\left( \tau \right) \hbox {d}\tau } \end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{\zeta }_{22}^j&= -\left( {\mathbf{K}_{42}^j -\mathbf{E}_\mathrm{d}^\mathrm{T} } \right) \left( {\mathbf{K}_{22}^j } \right) ^{-1}\mathbf{K}_{23}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\nonumber \\&\times \int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\mathbf{C}^\mathrm{T}\hbox {d}\tau } \nonumber \\&-\mathbf{K}_{43}^j \left( {\mathbf{K}_{aa}^j } \right) ^{-1}\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } \mathbf{{\underline{N}}}^\mathrm{T}\otimes \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\mathbf{C}^\mathrm{T}\hbox {d}\tau \nonumber \\&+\int \limits _{t_{j-1} }^{t_j } {\mathbf{N}_n \mathbf{B}\left( \tau \right) \mathbf{R}^{-1}\mathbf{C}^\mathrm{T}\hbox {d}\tau }. \end{aligned}$$

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Peng, H., Jiang, X. & Chen, B. Optimal nonlinear feedback control of spacecraft rendezvous with finite low thrust between libration orbits. Nonlinear Dyn 76, 1611–1632 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11071-013-1233-9

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  • Spacecraft rendezvous
  • Circular restricted three-body problem
  • Optimal feedback control
  • Finite low thrust
  • Libration point orbits