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Nonlinear Dynamics

, Volume 38, Issue 1–4, pp 323–337

# A General Formulation and Solution Scheme for Fractional Optimal Control Problems

Article

## Abstract

Accurate modeling of many dynamic systems leads to a set of Fractional Differential Equations (FDEs). This paper presents a general formulation and a solution scheme for a class of Fractional Optimal Control Problems (FOCPs) for those systems. The fractional derivative is described in the Riemann–Liouville sense. The performance index of a FOCP is considered as a function of both the state and the control variables, and the dynamic constraints are expressed by a set of FDEs. The Calculus of Variations, the Lagrange multiplier, and the formula for fractional integration by parts are used to obtain Euler–Lagrange equations for the FOCP. The formulation presented and the resulting equations are very similar to those that appear in the classical optimal control theory. Thus, the present formulation essentially extends the classical control theory to fractional dynamic system. The formulation is used to derive the control equations for a quadratic linear fractional control problem. An approach similar to a variational virtual work coupled with the Lagrange multiplier technique is presented to find the approximate numerical solution of the resulting equations. Numerical solutions for two fractional systems, a time-invariant and a time-varying, are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. It is shown that (1) the solutions converge as the number of approximating terms increase, and (2) the solutions approach to classical solutions as the order of the fractional derivatives approach to 1. The formulation presented is simple and can be extended to other FOCPs. It is hoped that the simplicity of this formulation will initiate a new interest in the area of optimal control of fractional systems.

## Keywords

Lagrange Multiplier Fractional Derivative Fractional Differential Equation Virtual Work Solution Scheme
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## Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

## Authors and Affiliations

1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleU.S.A.

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