Skip to main content

Flood risk index in data-scarce river basins using the AHP and GIS approach


The flood risk assessment study is an important factor in order to identify the critical or high-risk zone areas. This research intends to develop a flood risk index map of data-scare river basins using an integrated approach of Geospatial technique and Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Technique (MCDM). Datasets based on the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in combination with Geographic Information System (GIS) were used as criteria and sub-criteria. The weights were derived using a questionnaire survey. The flood risk is the degree of exposure to the undesired event, which involves the multiplication of the natural flood hazard factors with highly vulnerable ones. The flood hazard map is developed considering slope, distance from the main river, land use, land cover, soil, drainage density and rainfall. The flood vulnerable index is developed using population density, crop production and density of road–river intersection. The high-risk areas of the river basin were identified using a flood risk map. AHP in combination with the GIS framework can be used as an alternative method for flood inundation or for developing the map of flood-prone zone of data-scarce river basins.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14


Fig. 15


Download references


The corresponding authors would like to express sincere thanks to India Meteorological Department (IMD), Pune; National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS & LUP) Nagpur, Tapi Irrigation Development Corporation (TIDC), Jalgaon, Government of Maharashtra, for providing necessary data for the study reported in the paper. The authors are grateful to Bhuvan and national remote sensing center, India for providing the figure of flood vulnerability Index. The authors would like to express their gratitude to Nikunj Mangukiya for his assistance in aligning the manuscript. The authors are thankful to anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions in improving the quality of the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sanjaykumar M. Yadav.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 27 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ramkar, P., Yadav, S.M. Flood risk index in data-scarce river basins using the AHP and GIS approach. Nat Hazards 109, 1119–1140 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • AHP
  • MCDM
  • Flood risk index
  • GIS
  • Data-scarce basin