On the status and mechanisms of coastal erosion in Marawila Beach, Sri Lanka

Abstract

Coastal erosion remains a problem in many developing countries because of a limited understating of erosion mechanisms and management. Sri Lanka is one of the countries that recognized coastal erosion management as a governmental responsibility, in 1984. Nevertheless, erosion mechanisms have not yet been fully understood. We investigate the status and mechanisms of coastal erosion using empirically collected data and various techniques, such as Geographic Information System analysis of satellite images, drone mapping, bathymetric surveys, hindcasting of wind-induced wave climate, questionnaires, and semi-structured interview surveys. We identified wave climate change, reduction in river sand supply, interruptions from previous erosion management measures, and offshore sand mining as potential causes of erosion considering sediment flux and rates of erosion. Erosion of Marawila Beach began during 2005–2010 and has been continuing ever since, due to a lack of integration in the beach and the entire sediment system. It is necessary to identify the long-term, large-scale changes in the sediment system through data collection. This study highlights the importance of an integrated coastal erosion management plan and could facilitate better coastal erosion management in Sri Lanka, as well as in other developing countries.

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Fig. 1

Source: Google Earth, Data SIO, NOAA, U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO (Photograph was taken by CNES-Airbus/DigitalGlobe satellites in December 23, 2017)

Fig. 2

Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community)

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Fig. 6

Source: Google Earth, Data SIO, NOAA, U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO) (Image was taken by DigitalGlobe). b Shoreline accretion rate from January 2017 to August 2017. c Shoreline accretion rate from August 2017 to February 2018. d Shoreline accretion rate from January 2017 to February 2018. e Significant management initiatives that took place in 2018

Fig. 7

Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community)

Fig. 8

Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community)

Fig. 9

Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community)

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Source: Google Earth, Data SIO, NOAA, U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO) (Image was taken by DigitalGlobe); b total sediment accretion between the Maha River mouth and Marawila during December 2001 to May 2017; c cumulative accretion between the Maha River mouth and MB from December 2001 to May 2019

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Acknowledgements

This study was partially funded by JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. JP25303016. We would like to thank Research England for granting funds for Dr Ravindra Jayaratne (UEL) to take part in and carry out field work in 2019, data analysis, technical discussions and manuscript preparation under the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF). We would like to thank Editage (www.editage.com) for English language editing.

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The design of the present study was originally developed by Sameera Maduranga Ratnayakage (SR) under the supervision of Jun Sasaki (JS) and revised with contributions of all the other authors. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by SR with the help of the co-authors. The first draft of the manuscript was prepared by SR with the revision by JS. All the authors made comments, which were accommodated by SR. All the authors confirmed and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Sameera Maduranga Samarasekara Ratnayakage.

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Ratnayakage, S.M.S., Sasaki, J., Suzuki, T. et al. On the status and mechanisms of coastal erosion in Marawila Beach, Sri Lanka. Nat Hazards 103, 1261–1289 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-020-04034-4

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Keywords

  • Developing country
  • Coastline change
  • Wave climate change
  • Sand mining
  • Beach nourishment